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PSHSB Next Generation 911 Cost Study

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Released: September 22, 2011





Federal Communications Commission
445 12th Street, S.W.
Washington, DC 20554

White Paper:
A Next Generation 911 Cost Study:
A Basis for Public Funding Essential to
Bringing a Nationwide Next Generation 911 Network
to America's Communications Users
and First Responders


Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau
September 2011

Executive Summary

The nationwide 911 system enables the public to place voice calls requesting emergency assistance. This is an
important and reliable service that saves lives, but it has serious limitations. The "voicecentric" legacy 911
system does not support more diverse technologies such as text messaging and streaming video, which
Americans increasingly rely on to communicate. A nationwide Next Generation 911 (NG911) network will bridge
this gap by providing the technical capability for Americans to contact public safety authorities using the
advanced telecommunications platforms of today and tomorrow. The Federal Communications Commission
(FCC or Commission) is dedicated to working closely with all stakeholders to ensure a smooth and costeffective
transition to NG911.
In this White Paper, the Federal Communications Commission's Public Safety and Homeland Security Bureau
presents a cost study on the network connectivity and call routing portion of the nationwide NG911 network.1
This paper will guide the Commission in its NG911 policymaking, and it is offered as a resource for other federal
policymakers as well as state and local governments and other stakeholders.

Introduction

To remain effective, the nation's 911 system must evolve to accommodate the ways people communicate.
Although broadband technologies are now central to how Americans communicate, a number of the public
safety answering points (PSAPs) or 911 call centers that handle 911 calls still lack broadband connectivity to a
service provider network, which is necessary to support the evolution to NG911.2 Providing this connectivity on
a nationwide scale will require substantial funding. This White Paper presents two models for achieving the
required connectivity, the second of which envisions a more costeffective deployment.

NG911 System Overview

NG911 will capitalize on advances in consumerbased electronics technology to provide a more flexible and
robust 911 interface that will improve the speed, accuracy, and preparedness of emergency response. The
legacy, circuitswitched model for routing 911 calls and conveying corresponding location information is
increasingly obsolete and poorly suited for an environment where nontraditional voice and data
communications content proliferates. When a wireless or VoIP user places a 911 call on a legacy network, the
service provider handles the call with a complex system of routing, rerouting, and lookup designed to emulate
the legacy technology. NG911 networks are able to take advantage of the benefits of IPbased wireless and
wireline networks to route calls faster and more efficiently. Similarly, the available missioncritical data
capabilities and features can provide first responders an advantage in responding to emergencies. NG911
capitalizes on these new platforms to overcome problems inherent in the legacy system and to take advantage
of IPbased telecommunications' superior bandwidth; accuracy; and flexibility in transmitting audio, video, text
and data in a variety of formats.
Instead of relying on standard wireline voice communications with legacy telephone switching, the NG911
system uses digital, packetswitched IP data and voice communications. When a user places a call in a NG911

1 The principal authors of the cost model are Pat Amodio, Dr. Henning Schulzrinne and Jennifer A. Manner. Other contributors include
Brian Hurley, Tim May, Jerome Stanshine, John Healy, Genaro Fullano, Michael Ha, Walter Johnston and Bryan Upham.
2 See Detailed Functional and Interface Standards for the NENA i3 Solution at http://www.nena.org/standards/technical/i3
solutionhttp://www.nena.org/standards/technical/i3solution.
2


system, it uses a standardized set of IPbased technologies and applications to route the call through Internet
traffic, providing intelligent routing, location information, and call signaling. Emergency calls are delivered to an
Emergency Services Internet Protocol Network (ESInet),3 which can receive calls from a variety of different
networks and types of networks. The ESInet then forwards the call to the appropriate PSAP. The flexibility of
NG911 networks allows them to accommodate call handling by multiple entities4 seamlessly, while allowing
network service providers to dynamically route calls around congested networks and enabling PSAPs to manage
call volume more efficiently. Finally, the transition to NG911 will introduce costefficiencies.
Overall, NG911 networks are far more versatile than legacy 911 networks. They support voice as well as data,
including streaming video, still images, and text. This flexibility in turn allows NG911 networks to accept and
deliver traffic from a wide array of possible enduser devices. While a legacy 911 network can receive only voice
calls, an NG911 network can accept video from a smartphone camera, voice over the voice network, VoIP
transmitted voice calls over a 3G or 4G network, or data sent by applications installed on the phone. Where
legacy 911 systems are built on the assumption that a call is placed from a fixed point corresponding to a
landline telephone, NG911 networks can effectively and efficiently route traffic from mobile user devices and
fixedlocation devices.
NG911 also has the potential to enhance the ability of PSAPs and first responders to assess and respond to
emergencies based on the texts, photos, and videos that consumers send to them, combined with information
they gather and correlate from other sources and databases.

Cost Study Overview

Introduction

This cost study examines two cost models for funding the construction and ongoing costs for nationwide NG911
network connectivity and call routing between the public safety answering point (PSAP) and the commercial
service provider. It does not address other costs that PSAPs or carriers may incur in migrating to NG911, such as
new systems located within the PSAP or upgrades to service provider networks to support NG911. The model
calculates both capital or nonrecurring costs and ongoing or recurring costs under two cost models validated by
experts a baseline model and a second model that assumes the realization of certain costefficiencies from
PSAP consolidation and using hosted as opposed to dedicated networks.5 The inputs for both models include
the number of PSAPs in the United States, NG911 bandwidth requirements, nonrecurring or onetime
equipment and installation costs, and recurring or ongoing costs, including operations and maintenance
support.

3 An ESInet is designed as an IPbased internetwork (network of networks) shared by all agencies which may be involved in any
emergency.
http://www.nena.org/standards/technical/voip/functionalinterfaceNG911
i3http://www.nena.org/standards/technical/voip/functionalinterfaceNG911i3
4 Unlike modern E911 systems, which are forced to emulate the behaviors of legacy incumbent wireline utility calls to complete calls over
wireline facilities, with NG911 the IP traffic access provider, communications service provider, network operator(s), and serverside
services may all be handled by different entities without sacrificing efficient IP routing.
5 Cost model assumptions are in Appendix A. The cost model was constructed and its assumptions were validated through a technical
analysis that used data acquired from several major commercial service and industry equipment providers, their competitors, and
vendors. Costs were based on appropriate comparable Request for Proposal (RFP) responses; actual proposals from service providers for
similar network builds and operations; and information obtained directly from service providers, equipment vendors, and integrators.
Detailed cost scenarios were also developed and compared with cost scenarios provided by service providers, equipment vendors,
integrators, and public safety to further validate costs.
3


Assumptions

To ensure this cost study is measurable, we have divided PSAPs into three size categories, based on the number
of seats for calltakers within each PSAP:
Small PSAPs:
PSAPs with 5 or fewer seats.
Medium PSAPs:
PSAPs with 6 to 49 seats.
Large PSAPs:
PSAPs with 50 or more seats.
The cost study also assumes that each PSAP will provide NG911 service using one of two network architecture
solutions dedicated or hosted.
Under the dedicated solution, the PSAP owns and operates all network, call routing, and call processing
equipment and leases network connectivity. The dedicated solution requires more capital expenditures and on
going cost support then the hosted solution, including the costs of operations and maintenance personnel to
support the PSAPspecific NG911 infrastructure. The dedicated solution allows for greater PSAPspecific
customization. Most current 911 systems are closer to the dedicated solution because most of the equipment
for handling calls, such as the switch, is housed in the PSAP.
Under the hosted solution, a PSAP contracts with third party service providers for all network services and
associated equipment, which are hosted offsite and are accessible by multiple PSAPs and other public safety
entities. Costs are based on administrative and monthly fees. Since this approach permits the sharing of
information technology and system administration resources, the hosted solution is likely to be more cost
effective than the dedicated solution. However, the hosted solution may not offer as many PSAPspecific
customization options.6 For medium PSAPs, the hosted media processing systems, such as IPPBX and
conference bridges,7 are located closer to the PSAP, whereas for small PSAPs, they are regionalized.8 This
reduces the initial investment required and allows for costsharing among PSAPs but also limits the extent to
which services can be customized.
The transition to NG911 may induce organizational as well as technological changes. Local authorities seeking to
reduce costs may consolidate PSAPs or rely more extensively on hosted solutions. Since the extent of these
changes is impossible to predict, this White Paper presents two deployment models, each of which assumes a
particular distribution of hosted and dedicated solutions among PSAPs in the three size categories and provides
an estimate of the extent to which PSAPs will consolidate.

Baseline Model (Option A)


The baseline model (Option A) assumes that a significant majority of small PSAPs will choose a hosted NG911
solution; half of mediumsized PSAPs will choose a hosted solution; and given the size and scope of PSAPs in
major cities, all large PSAPs will select a dedicated solution. Option A also assumes that no PSAPs will
consolidate operations as they transition to NG911.

6 It is possible, though, that some providers may offer the same basic software for either a hosted or dedicated solution.
7 Media centers or gateways, will be a distribution center for network providers that will aggregate DS1s from multiple TDM POPs onto a
single DS3, complete calls directly to PSAPs over an MPLS network, and provide TDMtoIP conversion and conference bridge services
out of regional collocation facilities to the National Data Centers.
8 See architectural diagram in Appendix B.
4


CostEffective Model (Option B)


The costeffective model (Option B) assumes that PSAP consolidation will result in a 35% decrease in the number
of PSAPs as networks migrate to NG911. This model also assumes a greater reliance on hosted solutions, with
50% of large PSAPS and 75% of medium PSAPs opting for a hosted solution.

Cost Elements

9
The core network components for a NG911 network are:
PSAPs' access connectivity to, and service providers'10 interconnection with, the ESInet.
The ESInet itself, which interconnects PSAPs as calloriginating service providers.
Each component is discussed below.

PSAP Access

PSAPs need to access the regional ESInet using IP access connectivity. Historical trends indicate that PSAPs must
provision at a minimum two, and sometimes three, physicallydiverse access links to ensure adequate reliability
and resiliency. The cost of providing PSAP access depends significantly on the methods used to provide
redundancy and on the availability of commercial broadband access. To account for the particular challenges
rural PSAPs face in securing adequate and costeffective broadband connectivity, this study includes as a cost
element special construction charges and nonrecurring costs (NRC) for items needed to establish the ESInet or
IP facilities.11 These costs are generally incurred only once, but this study also takes into account a single
equipment refresh during the projected tenyear period for certain equipment, such as routers.
As an orderofmagnitude estimate and as described in more detail below, a 10 Mbps commercialgrade circuit
is likely to be sufficient to support 911 traffic for all but the largest PSAPs. This study assumes that the cost of
carrying emergency calls to the boundary of the ESInet is borne by the Telecommunications Service Provider
(TSP) and is thus beyond the scope of this report. If the ESInet interconnects at major interexchange points
(IXPs), the costs to both the TSP and the ESInet are likely de minimis. Currently, there are about 85 IXPs in the
United States, but they are not distributed evenly geographically, so it is likely that TSPs would have to peer
privately with some ESInets. This also depends on whether the ESInet is using shared or dedicated facilities, as
discussed below.


9 The cost elements included in this paper include everything exclusive of equipment, software, and service within the PSAP.
10 These service providers could include Commercial Mobile Radio Services (CMRS) operators or Local Exchange Carriers (LECs).
11 Special construction charges may apply to the installation of certain fiberbased products. Companies typically determine whether
special construction and associated charges are applicable on a casebycase basis depending on the customer's geographic location, such
as the distance to the nearest wire center or point of presence. Special types of construction may include underground service
connections; aerial drop wires, underground conduit; trenching, where armored cable is laid in a trench; trench backfill expenses; cable
replacement; and dismantling and removing aerial facilities, where facilities are changed from aerial to underground.
5


ESInet12

NG911 architecture relies on the ESInet to deliver voice, video, text, and data "calls" to the PSAP. There are at
least three fundamental approaches to interconnecting PSAPs via an ESInet. First, the ESInet can serve as a
dedicated network used solely for 911 calls and related communications, likely using MultiProtocol Label
Switching (MPLS)13 facilities offered by commercial service providers.14 Under the second approach, the
network can be shared with other governmental or notforprofit services. Examples of this approach include
the use of a statewide IP network or the USUCAN network that reuses the Internet2 leased fiber infrastructure
currently used to connect universities with each other.15 A third approach is to dispense with the ESInet
altogether and interconnect PSAPs via the public Internet, possibly using Virtual Private Networks (VPNs). This
approach has no additional costs beyond access link charges.

Cost Analysis

This analysis first determines the number of PSAPs in each size category: small, medium, and large. It then
calculates nonrecurring and recurring costs under each model based on the distribution among PSAPs of the
two architectural solutions (dedicated or hosted) and on the total number of PSAPs requiring access to
broadband fiber.
For nonrecurring access connectivity, the study takes into account the cost to upgrade from timedivision
multiplexing (TDM) to IPoverfiber, the percentage of PSAPs that must upgrade to IPoverfiber, the percentage
of PSAPs that upgrade from a single fiber connection to a dual fiber connection for improved reliability, and the
percentage of PSAPs requiring special construction charges to connect or upgrade broadband fiber to the PSAP.
Special construction charges also vary based on the size of the PSAP and its geographic location. The analysis
also includes nonrecurring costs for equipment required to connect the PSAP to a hosted or dedicated network
solution.16
Recurring costs include the costs of access connectivity for all PSAPs, which typically take the form of monthly
fees to subscribe to a certain amount of bandwidth.17 Recurring costs under the hosted solution also include
monthly fees for services hosted offsite by a third party service provider. Recurring costs under the dedicated
solution also include ongoing maintenance and operations costs. Based on estimates of current costs for 911
trunking (T1 circuits) nationwide, the total yearly recurring cost could be offset by as much as $26 M to $55 M
once NG911 networks are fully operational. This is based on a reasonable estimate of the number of trunks
each PSAP has today (5 to 7 on average) at a monthly rate of $65 to $100 per trunk.

12 The ESInet includes servers required to obtain and validate location information and to route calls, such as servers; Emergency Call
Routing Function (ECRF); Border Control Functions (BCF); Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP); Policy Store/Policy Routing Function
(PSPRF); Location Validation Function (LVF); and LIS (Location Information Servers).
13 See
http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6557/products_ios_technology_home.htmlhttp://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/ps6557/pr
oducts_ios_technology_home.html.
14 The cost of a statewide dedicated ESInet depends on the geographic distribution and number of PSAPs but is likely to be substantial.
Generally, the perMbps cost of a network decreases with capacity, so, for example, it is less expensive to build one 1 Gbps network than
ten 100 Mbps networks. In addition, the ESInet should be structured to handle any reasonable denialofservice traffic.
15 See http://www.internet2.edu/government/docs/U.S.%20UCAN%20Internet2%20Member%20Community%20FAQ.pdf.
16 See Figures 3 and 7.
17 See Figures 2 and 6.
6


For the baseline model (Option A) mentioned above, the total tenyear18 cost, including nonrecurring costs and
recurring costs, is $2.68 billion. Figure 1 depicts nonrecurring costs for the three size categories and the
projected recurring costs.

All PSAPs

NonRecurring Costs (NRC)

Small
$302 M
Medium
$776 M
Large
$153 M

All PSAPs Total NRC

$1.23 B
All PSAPs Total Recurring Costs over 10 years
$1.45 B

All PSAPs Total 10 year Recurring Cost + NRC

$2.68 B

Figure 1: Baseline Model (Option A), Cost Summary



In Figure 2, the total monthly recurring costs are shown for the three size categories and projected out for a 10
year period. Based on a typical rampup schedule, the monthly recurring costs are modest in the first three
years, after which the transition to NG911 accelerates.

Total Monthly Recurring Costs (MRC)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

Year 8

Year 9

Year 10

Small PSAP

$5,957,050 $15,885,465 $31,770,931 $61,556,178 $107,226,892 $163,143,730 $194,120,387 $206,511,050 $206,511,050 $206,511,050

Medium PSAP

$2,325,930
$6,202,481 $12,404,962 $24,034,615 $41,866,748
$63,699,482 $75,794,321 $80,632,256 $80,632,256 $80,632,256

Large PSAP

$663,802
$1,770,138
$3,540,276
$6,859,285 $11,948,432
$18,179,317 $21,631,086 $23,011,794 $23,011,794 $23,011,794

Total

$8,946,782 $23,858,085 $47,716,169 $92,450,078 $161,042,071 $245,022,529 $291,545,794 $310,155,100 $310,155,100 $310,155,100

Net Present
Value (NPV)

$1,448,431,006

US 10Year
Treasury Yield
rate

3.03%

Figure 2: Option A, Recurring Costs



18 A theoretical rollout schedule for NG911 and concurrent phaseout of the baseline system spans a 10year implementation period.

7


Figure 3 summarizes the nonrecurring costs for the three PSAP size categories. As an example, the total NRC
for small PSAPs is $302.3 M, which includes access connectivity cost ($144 M), hosted cost ($54.9 M), dedicated
network cost ($61.7 M), and equipment refresh and replacement costs ($41.7 M).

Summary of NonRecurring Costs (NRC)

Dedicated Solution (IT infrastructure,

Access Connectivity Cost (NRC)

Hosted Cost

ESInet, etc)

Low

High

Total %

Dedicated Dedicated
Bandwidth TDM to IP

Total %

Total %

Total %

PSAP's for

Network
Network

Dedicated

Equipment
(BW)
Install

PSAP's Upgrade

New

Special

Total NRC

Total NRC

Total NRC

Cost NRC Cost NRC

Network Cost

Refresh and

PSAP Size

Connection (NRC)
(S, M, L) d PSAP's

PSAP's

construction

Cost

(per PSAP)

All PSAPs

(per PSAP) (per PSAP)

NRC All PSAPs

Replacement

Total

Small
10 Mb/s
$1,100
80%
55%
25%
45%
$143,998,668
$10,000 $54,888,000
$500,000
$750,000
$61,749,000
$41,701,707 $302,337,375
Medium 10 Mb/s
$1,100
19%
75%
25%
40%
$41,617,111
$25,000 $16,294,875
$750,000 $1,500,000
$611,057,813
$107,035,168 $776,004,966
Large
100 Mb/s
$2,800
1%
100%
0%
30%
$3,149,199
$0
$0 $1,500,000 $3,000,000
$128,643,750
$21,086,872 $152,879,821

Figure 3: Options A, NonRecurring Costs (NRC)



Figure 4 shows a yearbyyear spend for all costs over the projected tenyear period under Option A. As
mentioned above, Option A assumes that PSAPs would not consolidate operations as they transition to NG911.

Figure 4: Option A, YearbyYear Spend example




8


The cost effective model (Option B) assumes that PSAPs would consolidate operations as they migrate to NG911
and also rely more on hosted solutions. The total tenyear projected cost under this model, including non
recurring and recurring costs, is $1.44 billion.
Figure 5 depicts nonrecurring costs for the three size categories and the projected recurring costs. Because
PSAP consolidations would reduce the number of PSAPs by 35% and a higher proportion of medium and large
PSAPs would use hosted solutions, the nonrecurring costs are lower.

All PSAPs

NonRecurring Costs (NRC)

Small
$203 M
Medium
$297 M
Large
$56 M

All PSAPs Total NRC

$556 M
All PSAPs Total Recurring Costs over 10 years
$888 M

All PSAPs Total 10 year Recurring Cost + NRC

$1.44 B


Figure 5: Option B, CostEffective Model, Cost Summary


Figure 6 shows the total monthly recurring costs for the three size categories projected out for a tenyear
period. Based on a typical rampup schedule, the monthly recurring costs are modest in the first three years,
after which the transition to NG911 accelerates.

Total Monthly Recurring Costs (MRC)

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Year 6

Year 7

Year 8

Year 9

Year 10

Small PSAP

$3,872,082 $10,325,553 $20,651,105 $40,011,516 $69,697,479 $106,043,424 $126,178,252 $134,232,183 $134,232,183 $134,232,183

Medium PSAP

$1,245,898
$3,322,395
$6,644,789 $12,874,279 $22,426,164
$34,120,993 $40,599,663 $43,191,130 $43,191,130 $43,191,130

Large PSAP

$365,847
$975,593
$1,951,186
$3,780,423
$6,585,253
$10,019,340 $11,921,747 $12,682,709 $12,682,709 $12,682,709

Total

$5,483,828 $14,623,540 $29,247,080 $56,666,218 $98,708,896 $150,183,758 $178,699,661 $190,106,023 $190,106,023 $190,106,023

Net Present
Value (NPV)

$887,799,225

US 10Year
Treasury Yield
rate

3.03%

Figure 6: Option B, Monthly Recurring Costs



9


Figure 7 presents nonrecurring costs for the three PSAP size categories under the costeffective model, Option
B. As an example, the total nonrecurring costs for small PSAPs is $203.2 M, which includes access connectivity
cost ($93.6 M), hosted cost ($35.7 M), dedicated network cost ($40.1 M), and equipment refresh and
replacement costs ($33.8 M).

Summary of NonRecurring Costs (NRC)

Dedicated Solution (IT infrastructure,

Access Connectivity Cost (NRC)

Hosted Cost

ESInet, etc)

Low

High

Total %

Dedicated Dedicated
Bandwidth TDM to IP

Total %

Total %

Total %

PSAP's for

Network
Network

Dedicated

Equipment
(BW)
Install

PSAP's Upgrade

New

Special

Total NRC

Total NRC

Total NRC

Cost NRC Cost NRC

Network Cost

Refresh and

PSAP Size

Connection (NRC)
(S, M, L) d PSAP's

PSAP's

construction

Cost

(per PSAP)

All PSAPs

(per PSAP) (per PSAP)

NRC All PSAPs

Replacement

Total

Small
10 Mb/s
$1,100
80%
55%
25%
45%
$93,599,134
$10,000 $35,677,200
$500,000
$750,000
$40,136,850
$33,778,383 $203,191,567
Medium 10 Mb/s
$1,100
19%
75%
25%
40%
$27,051,122
$25,000 $15,887,503
$750,000 $1,500,000
$198,593,789
$55,770,813 $297,303,227
Large
100 Mb/s
$2,800
1%
100%
0%
30%
$2,046,979
$50,000
$1,114,913 $1,500,000 $3,000,000
$41,809,219
$10,569,277 $55,540,388

Figure 7: Option B, NonRecurring Costs (NRC)


Figure 8 shows a yearbyyear spend for all costs over the tenyear period for Option B. As mentioned above,
this option assumes that PSAP consolidations during the transition to NG911 would result in the number of
PSAPs decreasing by 35%.

Figure 8: Option B, YearbyYear Spend example

10


Appendix A Cost Modeling Assumptions


Key Assumptions

The cost model analysis includes only costs related to connecting the PSAP to the ESInet, and the perPSAP share
of the cost of the ESInet. It intentionally excludes any NG911related costs for upgrading PSAP facilities to
support NG911, such as updating call taker stations, training, or additional technical staff. The model also does
not address costs incurred by telecommunications carriers. See Figure 9 for a summary of the assumptions.
Both Option A and Option B share the following core assumptions:
1. As of July 14, 2011, the FCC PSAP registry included a total of 6,861 active PSAPs in the United States.
2. If a physical IP fiberbased access facility is not available and special construction to build fiber to
support 10 Mbps or 100 Mbps fiber access is required, the special construction cost estimates are based
on an average distance of one mile.
3. Monthly recurring costs (MRC) over 10 years are calculated using Net Present Value (NPV) and the US
10Year Treasury Yield rate of 3.03% as of July 21, 2011.
4. MRC over 10 years includes an escalation of 4% during year six because contracts for customer network
pricing are typically based on 36 or 60 months pricing.
5. The total MRC per PSAP for the hosted solution (call routing, infrastructure, and software) is $1,200,
regardless of the PSAP size.
6. Nonrecurring costs are included for items needed to establish the ESInet or IP access facilities. These
costs are not generally incurred again, but network equipment such as routers typically have life cycles
that may require a refreshing of equipment. Telecommunications infrastructure equipment typically has
a useful life of seven years. Therefore, the cost model assumes that starting at year eight, the capital
equipment purchased in years one to three is replaced, but we assume even distribution of the cost
over a fiveyear period in years six through ten.19
7. Use of microwave is not taken into account in calculating backhaul costs.
8. Operations and maintenance support is included as a MRC for the dedicated solution at a rate of 6% of
capital cost.

Baseline Cost Model Option A

The baseline model, does not consider PSAP consolidation for the transition to NG911. Percentages and costs
are listed below for each PSAP size class.

19 See, http://www.irs.gov/irm/part1/irm_01035006.html and http://www.microsoft.com/midsizebusiness/serverreplacementcycle.mspx
11


Cost Effective Model Option B
1. Assumes PSAP consolidation during the transition to NG911, resulting in a total of 35% fewer PSAPs at
the end of the migration to NG911. We do not try to estimate the consolidation for each of the three
size categories. Among large PSAPs, 50% are assumed to choose a dedicated NG911 solution and 50% a
hosted solution. The hosted solution for large PSAPs incurs a nonrecurring cost of $50,000.
2. Among medium PSAPs, 25% are assumed to choose a dedicated NG911 solution and the other 75% a
hosted solution.

Large PSAPs

Large PSAPs have 50 or more call taker positions; currently, approximately 1% of all PSAPs fall into this
category.
100% of large PSAPs are assumed to choose dedicated NG911 systems for Option A, and 50% are assumed
to choose dedicated NG911 systems for Option B.
Large PSAPs are assumed to require 100 Mbps IP transport facilities, with a MRC of $8,750.
30% of large PSAPs are assumed to require special construction charges for IP facilities averaging $132,000
each.
NRC per PSAP for dedicated network costs is divided into two classes: $1,500,000 for 75% of the PSAPs and
$3,000,000 for 25% of the PSAPs. This division takes into account the range of possible dedicated network
costs.
All of the large PSAPs are assumed to upgrade IP facilities to dual 100 Mbps IP access.
In Option A, the large PSAPs incur no MRC for the hosted solution because they are assumed to own and
operate all of the infrastructure equipment.

Medium PSAPs

Medium PSAPs are characterized as having between 6 and 49 call taker positions; currently, approximately
19% of all PSAPs fall into this category.
50% (Option A) or 75% (Option B) of medium PSAPs are assumed to choose the hosted solution with
national data centers for databases (to house the NG911 applications and call routing databases) and
regional media gateway deployments, for hosted equipment and services closer to PSAPs. The remaining
PSAPs are assumed to choose a dedicated solution.
Medium PSAPs are assumed to require 10 Mbps IP transport facilities with a MRC of $1,150.
75% of the medium PSAPs are assumed to upgrade IP access facilities to dual 10 Mbps connectivity.
40% of medium PSAPs are assumed to require special construction charges for IP facilities averaging $75,000
each.
For the hosted solution, the total NRC and additional equipment cost is assumed to be $25,000.
12


NRC per PSAP for the dedicated network is $750,000 (for 75% of the PSAPs) to $1,500,000 (for 25% of the
PSAPs).

Small PSAPs

Small PSAPs have between one and five positions; approximately 80% of PSAPs are in this category.
98% of small PSAPs are assumed to choose national data centers for databases (to house the application and
databases) and regional media gateway deployments (hosted equipment and services regionally located
across the US).
2% of small PSAPs are assumed to choose a dedicated solution.
55% of small PSAPs are assumed to upgrade IP facilities to dual 10 Mbps connectivity; the others are
assumed to already have the necessary connectivity. 45% of small PSAPs are assumed to require special
construction charges for IP facilities averaging $55,000 each.
NRC per PSAP for the dedicated network is assumed to be $500,000 (for 75% of the PSAPs) to $750,000 (for
25% of the PSAPs).
Small PSAPs are assumed to require 10 Mbps IP transport facilities with an MRC of $1,150 for each circuit.
For the hosted solution, the total NRC and cost of additional equipment is assumed to be $10,000 per
month.
13


Parameters

Small PSAPs

Medium PSAPs

Large PSAPs

Seat size
15
649
50+
Percentage of PSAPs of
80 %
19 %
1 %
each size
PSAPs selecting the
98 %
50 % (75%)
0 % (50%)
hosted solution (Option B)
Bandwidth required
2 x 10 Mbps
2 x 10 Mbps
2 x 100 Mbps
PSAPs upgraded with dual
55 %
75 %
100 %
fiber access
PSAPs that incur special
45 %
40 %
30 %
construction costs for
installing new or
upgrading existing fiber
Nonrecurring cost (NRC)
0.5 ... 0.75
0.75...1.5
1.5...3.0
for network access ($M)
Monthly cost for fiber
2 x $1,150
2 x $1,150
2 x $8,750
lease
NRC for hosting services
$10,000
$25,000
$50,000
Monthly recurring charge
$1,200
$1,200
$1,200
(MRC) for hosting services

Figure 9 Key Assumptions

Bandwidth Requirements

Each call taker can be active on one call at a time, for either voice combined with video or standalone
surveillance/traffic camera video. All call taker positions should be able to use all network functions
simultaneously; thus, we take into account peak usage when all call takers are busy, not average usage.
We assume that each active voice call needs 80 Kbps, based on a voice bit rate of 64 Kbps with G.711
encoding plus IP packetization overhead. (Unlike with traditional PSAPs, calls that are queued or on hold do
not consume bandwidth.)
Each call taker watches one video stream, at approximately 1.6 Mbps per call taker position.
The bandwidth needed for text (RTT, SMS, and instant messaging) is generally considered to be negligible
compared to the bandwidth needed for audio and video.
14


Data (e.g., access to location data or maps) for each call taker is small. We assume that each PSAP needs
approximately 1 Mbps for data. In both the hosted and dedicated solutions, mapping and similar data will
likely be cached within the PSAP.
Network bandwidth is typically sold in steps, not by the kilobit. Therefore, we assume 10 Mbps and 100
Mbps, even though the needs may fall between those values.
While bandwidth needs may not be fully symmetric, commercialgrade access at the 10 Mbps and 100 Mbps
bandwidth levels are typically symmetrical, so we make no special provisions for asymmetric access.



15


Appendix B Diagrams

Small Market Hosted Solution

PSAP
Regional Media
Gateway
National Data
Center
Physically Diverse Path
for backup center
Note: Interconnection of IP services from PSAP to Local Media Centers, through various point-of-presence (POP), not shown in detail.

Figure 9 Small PSAP Hosted Solution (Example)

16


Medium Market Hosted Solution

PSAP
Local Media
Center
National Data
Center
Physically Diverse Path
for backup center
Note: Interconnection of IP services from PSAP to Local Media Centers, through various point-of-presence (POP), not shown in detail.


Figure 10 Medium PSAP Hosted Solution (Example)


17


Large Market Dedicated Solution

Multimedi
a

ECRF
ESRP

ESInet

Houston ESInet

Multimedi
a

ECRF

LIS

BCF

ESRP

Subscriber

Database

ESInet

LVF

LIS

BCF

Subscriber

Database

Regional or Texas ESInet

LVF

PSAP
Houston PSAP
Physically Diverse Path
Carrier Network point -of
-presence (POP)



Figure 11 Large PSAP Dedicated Solution (Example)


18



Appendix C Network Cost Elements


NENA i3 Core Components


Border Control Functions (BCF) for IP
connectivity from call originators (either
dedicated to 911 or shared with other
emergency services)

Emergency Call Routing Function (ECRF)
Location Validation Function (LVF)
Emergency Services Routing Proxy (ESRP)
Policy Store/Policy Routing Function (PSPRF)
Location Information Servers (LIS)

Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS)

Fiber access connectivity 10 Mbps and 100

Network (Could be LECsupplied or

Mbps

State owned/operated)




Software external to the PSAP

Data collection, security, identity management,

aggregation, GIS functionality (largely reused,
but new to PSAPs),
DBMS and ALI equivalent
software (transitional)


Gateways

Legacy 911 tandems and/or gateways from
originating trunk (911 tandems not used) (May
include location database store if ALI equivalent
not used)

Other included elements

Firewall, offsite backup data, Uninterrupted

Power Systems (UPS), power supplies, power
cords and cables


Figure 12 Network Cost Elements

19


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