What Is broadband?

Broadband or high-speed Internet access allows users to access the Internet and Internet-related services at significantly higher speeds than those available through "dial-up" services. Broadband speeds vary significantly depending on the technology and level of service ordered. Broadband services for residential consumers typically provide faster downstream speeds (from the Internet to your computer) than upstream speeds (from your computer to the Internet).

How does it work?

Broadband allows users to access information via the Internet using one of several high-speed transmission technologies. Transmission is digital, meaning that text, images, and sound are all transmitted as "bits" of data. The transmission technologies that make broadband possible move these bits much more quickly than traditional telephone or wireless connections, including traditional dial-up Internet access connections.

What are its advantages?

  • Broadband is an important tool for expanding educational and economic opportunities for consumers in remote locations.
  • Broadband allows you to take advantage of services not available or not convenient to use with a dial-up Internet connection, such as Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP), an alternative to traditional voice telephone service.
  • Broadband makes "telemedicine" possible: patients in rural areas can confer online with medical specialists in more urban areas and share information and test results very quickly.
  • Broadband helps you efficiently access and use many reference and cultural resources via the Internet.
  • You also need broadband to best take advantage of many distance learning opportunities, like online college or university courses, and continuing or senior education programs.
  • Broadband allows you to shop online more quickly and efficiently.

What types are available?

Broadband can be provided over different platforms:

  • Digital Subscriber Line (DSL)
  • Cable Modem
  • Fiber
  • Wireless
  • Satellite

The broadband technology you choose will depend on a number of factors. These include how broadband Internet access is packaged with other services (like voice telephone and home entertainment), price and service availability.

Digital subscriber line (DSL)

DSL is a wireline transmission technology that transmits data faster over traditional copper telephone lines already installed to homes and businesses.

The following are types of DSL transmission technologies:

  • Asymmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) – used primarily by residential customers. ADSL typically provides faster speed in the downstream direction than the upstream direction. ADSL allows faster downstream data transmission over the same line used to provide voice service, without disrupting regular telephone calls on that line.
  • Symmetrical Digital Subscriber Line (SDSL) – used typically by businesses for services such as video conferencing. Downstream and upstream traffic speeds are equal. Faster forms of SDSL, include High-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line (HDSL) and Very High-data-rate Digital Subscriber Line (VDSL).

Cable modem

Cable modem service enables cable operators to provide broadband using the same coaxial cables that deliver pictures and sound to your TV set, though you can still watch cable TV while using a cable modem service. Transmission speeds vary depending on the type of cable modem, cable network and traffic load. Speeds are comparable to or exceed typical residential DSL.


Fiber optic technology converts to light electrical signals carrying data and sends the light through transparent glass fibers about the diameter of a human hair. Fiber transmits data at speeds far exceeding current DSL or cable modem speeds. The actual speed you experience, however, will vary depending upon a variety of factors, such as how close to your computer the service provider brings the fiber and how the service provider configures the service. The same fiber providing your broadband can also simultaneously deliver voice (VoIP) and video services, including video-on-demand.


Wireless fidelity (WiFi) connects end-user devices to the a local Internet service via short-range wireless technology. WiFi allows users to move WiFi-enabled devices around within their homes or businesses. WiFi is also widely available in many public "hotspots."

Fixed wireless technologies using longer range directional equipment can provide broadband service in remote or sparsely populated areas where other types of broadband would be too costly to provide.

Mobile wireless broadband services are also widely available from mobile broadband service providers. Mobile wireless broadband service is typically slower than either wired or fixed wireless alternatives.


Satellite broadband, another form of wireless broadband, is useful for serving remote or sparsely populated areas. Downstream and upstream speeds for satellite broadband depend on several factors, including the provider and service package purchased, the consumer's line of sight to the orbiting satellite, and the weather. Satellite service can be disrupted in extreme weather conditions. Speeds may be slower than DSL and cable modem, but the download speed is still much faster than the download speed with dial-up Internet access.

For satellite broadband service, a user must have:

  • a two or three foot dish or base station – the most costly item
  • a satellite Internet modem
  • a clear line of sight to the provider's satellite

Getting broadband in your area

  • Contact your local library and see if it has applied for the federal E-rate program, which subsidizes broadband to libraries and schools.
  • Contact local government officials and ask what they can do to attract broadband service providers to your area. It is typically expensive to extend a broadband network to a new area. Your county or municipality may be able to offer a broadband provider video franchise rights, making building out a broadband network more attractive to potential providers.
  • Talk with your state government or state public service commission to see what is being done or can be done to get broadband to your area. For contact information for your state public service commission, go to www.naruc.org/commissions.cfm

State and Territory Public Service Commission Contact Information

Alabama: 100 North Union St., Suite 850, Montgomery, AL 36104, Tel: 334-242-5218, Fax: 334-242-0509
Alaska: 701 West 8th Ave., Suite 300, Anchorage, AK 99501, Tel: 907-276-6222, Fax: 907-276-0160
Arizona: 1200 West Washington St., Phoenix, AZ 85007, Tel: 602-542-2237, Fax: 602-542-3977
Arkansas: 1000 Center Building, Little Rock, AR 72201, Tel: 501-682-2051, Fax: 501-682-5731
California: California State Building, 505 Van Ness Ave., San Francisco, CA 94102, Tel: 415-703-2782, Fax: 415-703-1758
Colorado: 1560 Broadway, Suite 250, Denver, CO 80202, Tel: 303-894-2000, Fax: 303-894-2065
Connecticut: 10 Franklin Square, New Britain, CT 06051, Tel: 860-827-1553, Fax: 860-827-2806
Delaware: 861 Silver Lake Blvd., Cannon Building, Suite 100, Dover, DE 19904, Tel: 302-739-4247, Fax: 302-739-4849
District of Columbia: 1333 H Street NW, 2nd Floor, Washington, DC 20005, Tel: 202-626-5100, Fax: 202-638-1785
Florida: 2540 Shumard Oak Blvd., Gerald Gunter Building, Tallahassee, FL 32399, Tel: 850-413-6344, Fax: 800-511-0809
Georgia: 244 Washington St., Atlanta, GA 30334, Tel: 404-656-4501 or 800-282-5813, Fax: 404-656-2341
Guam: 414 West Soledad Ave., GCIC Building, PO Box 862, Hagatna, Guam 96910, Tel: 671-472-1907, Fax: 671-472-1917
Hawaii: 465 South King St., Kekuanao'a Building, Honolulu, HI 96813, Tel: 808-586-2020, Fax: 808-586-2066
Idaho: 472 West Washington St., PO Box 83720, Boise, ID 83720-0074, Tel: 208-334-0300, Fax: 208-334-3762
Illinois: 160 North LaSalle St., Suite C-800, Chicago, IL 60601, Tel: 312-814-2850, Fax: 312-814-1818
Indiana: National City Center, 101 West Washington St., Suite 1500 East, Indianapolis, IN 46204, Tel: 317-232-2701, Fax: 317-232-6758
Iowa: 350 Maple St., Des Moines, IA 50319-0069, Tel: 515-281-5979, Fax: 515-281-8821
Kansas: 1500 S.W. Arrowhead Rd., Topeka, KS 66604, Tel: 785-271-3100, Fax: 785-271-3354
Kentucky: 211 Sower Blvd., Frankfort, KY 40601, Tel: 502-564-3940, Fax: 502-564-3460
Louisiana: Galvez Building 12th Floor, 602 North Fifth St., Baton Rouge, LA 70802, Tel: 225-342-4999 or 800-256-2397, Fax: 225-342-2831
Maine: 242 State St., 18 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333, Tel: 207-287-3831, Fax: 207-287-1039
Maryland: 16th Floor, 6 St. Paul St., Baltimore, MD 21202-6806, Tel: 410-767-8000, Fax: 410-333-6495
Massachusetts: One South Station, 2nd Floor, Boston, MA 02110, Tel: 617-305-3500, Fax: 617-345-9102
Michigan: 6545 Mercantile Way, Lansing, MI 48911, Tel: 517-241-6180, Fax: 517-241-6189
Minnesota: 121 Seventh Place East, Suite 350, St. Paul, MN 55101-2147, Tel: 651-296-7124, Fax: 651-297-7073
Mississippi: 501 North West St., Woolfolk State Office Building, Jackson, MS 39201-1174, Tel: 601-961-5400, Fax: 601-961-5842
Missouri: 200 Madison St., Governor Office Building, Jefferson City, MO 65101, Tel: 573-751-3234, Fax: 573-751-1847
Montana: 1701 Prospect Ave., PO Box 202601, Helena, MT 59620-2601, Tel: 406-444-6199, Fax: 406-444-7618
Nebraska: 300 The Atrium, 1200 N St., Lincoln, NE 68508-4927, Tel: 402-471-3101, Fax: 402-471-0254
Nevada: 1150 East William St., Carson City, NV 89701-3109, Tel: 775-684-6101, Fax: 775-684-6110
New Hampshire: 21 South Fruit St., Suite 10, Concord, NH 03301, Tel: 603-271-2431, Fax: 603-271-3878
New Jersey: Two Gateway Center, 8th Floor, Newark, NJ 07102, Tel: 609-777-3300, Fax: 609-777-3330
New Mexico: 1120 Paseo de Peralta, PERA Building, Santa Fe, NM 87501-1269, Tel: 888-4ASK-PRC (888-427-5772), Fax: 505-827-4379
New York: Three Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12223, Tel: 518-474-7080, Fax: 518-474-0421
North Carolina: 430 North Salisbury St., Raleigh, NC 27603, Tel: 919-733-4249, Fax: 919-733-7300
North Dakota: 600 E Boulevard Ave., Dept 408, Bismarck, ND 58505-0480, Tel: 701-328-2400, Fax: 701-328-2410
Northern Mariana Islands: PO Box 505049, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands 96950, Tel: 670-664-2206, Fax: 670-664-2211
Ohio: 180 East Broad St., Columbus, OH 43215, Tel: 614-466-3016, Fax: 614-466-7366
Oklahoma: Jim Thorpe Office Building, 2101 North Lincoln Blvd., Oklahoma City, OK 73105, Tel: 405-521-2211, Fax: 405-522-1623
Oregon: 550 Capitol St., NE, Suite 215, PO Box 2148, Salem, OR 97308, Tel: 800-522-2404
Pennsylvania: 400 North St., Commonwealth Keystone Building, Harrisburg, PA 17120, Tel: 717-787-5722, Fax: 717-787-4193
Puerto Rico: 235 Ave. Arterial Hostos, Capital Center, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918, Tel: 787-756-0804, Fax: 787-756-0814
Rhode Island:  89 Jefferson Blvd., Warwick, RI 02888, Tel: 401-941-4500, Fax: 401-941-8827
South Carolina: 101 Executive Center Dr., Columbia, SC 29210, Tel: 803-896-5100, Fax: 803-896-5246
South Dakota: State Capitol, 500 East Capitol Ave., Pierre, SD 57501, Tel: 605-773-3201, Fax: 866-757-6031
Tennessee: 460 James Robertson Parkway, Nashville, TN 37243, Tel: 615-741-2904, Fax: 615-741-5015
Texas: 1701 North Congress Ave., Austin, TX 78711, Tel: 512-936-7000, Fax: 512-936-7003
Utah: 160 East 300 South, 4th Floor, Salt Lake City, UT 84111, Tel: 801-530-6716, Fax: 801-530-6796
Vermont:  112 State St., 4th Floor, Montpelier, VT 05620, Tel: 802-828-2358, Fax: 802-828-3351
Virgin Islands: PO Box 40, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, Virgin Islands 00804, Tel: 340-776-1291, Fax: 340-774-4879 
Virginia: 1300 East Main St., Richmond, VA 23219, Tel: 804-371-9608, Fax: 804-371-9376
Washington: 1300 S. Evergreen Park Dr., PO Box 47250, Olympia, WA 98504, Tel: 360-664-1160, Fax: 360-586-1150
West Virginia:  201 Brooks St., Charleston, WV 25301, Tel: 304-340-0300, Fax: 304-340-0325
Wisconsin: 610 North Whitney Way, Madison, WI 53705, Tel: 608-266-5481, Fax: 608-266-1401 or 608-266-3957
Wyoming: 2515 Warren Ave., Suite 300, Cheyenne, WY 82002, Tel: 307-777-7427, Fax: 307-777-5700

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Date Last Updated/Reviewed: 
Tuesday, October 25, 2016