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Time Warner Cable Inc., et al. v. FCC & USA, No. 11-4138 (2nd Cir.)

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Released: June 27, 2012
11-4138 (L)
(CONSOLIDATED WITH NO. 11-5152)
BRIEF FOR RESPONDENTS
IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS FOR THE
SECOND CIRCUIT
TIME WARNER CABLE INC. AND NATIONAL CABLE &
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION,
PETITIONERS,
V.
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION AND
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
RESPONDENTS.

ON PETITION FOR REVIEW OF AN ORDER OF THE
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION

JOSEPH F. WAYLAND
SEAN A. LEV
ACTING ASSISTANT ATTORNEY GENERAL
ACTING GENERAL COUNSEL


CATHERINE G. O’SULLIVAN
PETER KARANJIA
NANCY C. GARRISON
DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSEL
ATTORNEYS


JACOB M. LEWIS
UNITED STATES
ASSOCIATE GENERAL COUNSEL
DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE

WASHINGTON, D.C. 20530
JAMES M. CARR

COUNSEL

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554
(202) 418-1762


TABLE OF CONTENTS


Table of Authorities......................................................................................... iii
Jurisdiction ........................................................................................................1
Introduction and Statement of Issues Presented ...............................................2
Statutes and Regulations ...................................................................................4
Counterstatement of the Case............................................................................4
Counterstatement of Facts .................................................................................5
A. The Program Carriage Statute ...............................................................5
B. The FCC’s Original Program Carriage Rules .......................................7
C. The Order On Review...........................................................................9
Summary of Argument....................................................................................15
Standard of Review .........................................................................................19
Argument.........................................................................................................21
I.
The Program Carriage Rules Are Consistent With The First
Amendment ..............................................................................................21
A. The Rules Are Subject To Intermediate Scrutiny. ..............................23
B. The Rules Satisfy Intermediate Scrutiny.............................................32
1.
The Rules Advance Substantial Government Interests...................32
2.
The Rules Do Not Burden Substantially More Speech
Than Necessary To Achieve Their Objectives. ..............................41
a.
The Carriage Discrimination Rule and Standstill
Procedure.....................................................................................41
b.
The Prima Facie Rule.................................................................45
i

II. The Commission Properly Concluded That It Has Authority
To Issue Program Carriage Standstill Orders Governing
Cable Operators........................................................................................49
III. The Commission Complied With The APA When It
Codified Its Standstill Procedure .............................................................56
A. The Commission Acted Well Within Its Discretion In
Codifying Its Standstill Procedure. .....................................................56
B. The Commission Complied With The APA’s Notice
Requirements.......................................................................................60
Conclusion.......................................................................................................66
ii

TABLE OF AUTHORITIES

CASES


Adams v. Zenas Zelotes, Esq., 606 F.3d 34 (2d Cir.
2010)............................................................................................................21
Adelphia Commc’ns Corp. v. FCC, 88 F.3d 1250
(D.C. Cir. 1996)...........................................................................................52
Associated Press v. United States, 326 U.S. 1
(1945) ..........................................................................................................37
BellSouth Corp. v. FCC, 144 F.3d 58 (D.C. Cir.
1998)............................................................................................................29
Bery v. City of New York, 97 F.3d 689 (2d Cir.
1996)............................................................................................................26
Buckley v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1 (1976) ...............................................................35
Cablevision Sys. Corp. v. FCC, 570 F.3d 83 (2d Cir.
2009)............................................................................................... 21, 25, 36
Cablevision Sys. Corp. v. FCC, 597 F.3d 1306
(D.C. Cir. 2010)........................................................................ 24, 39, 40, 41
Cablevision Sys. Corp. v. FCC, 649 F.3d 695 (D.C.
Cir. 2011)............................................................................................. passim
Capital Tel. Co. v. FCC, 777 F.2d 868 (2d Cir.
1985)............................................................................................................51
Cellular Phone Taskforce v. FCC, 205 F.3d 82 (2d
Cir. 2000).....................................................................................................23
Chevron USA, Inc. v. Natural Res. Def. Council,
Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984) ............................................................................22
Citizens United v. FEC, 130 S. Ct. 876 (2010) ...............................................34
Comcast Corp. v. FCC, 526 F.3d 763 (D.C. Cir.
2008)............................................................................................................54
Comcast Corp. v. FCC, 579 F.3d 1 (D.C. Cir. 2009) .....................................44
Connecticut Dep’t of Pub. Util. Control v. FCC, 78
F.3d 842 (2d Cir. 1996) ...............................................................................23
Dickerson v. Napolitano, 604 F.3d 732 (2d Cir.
2010)............................................................................................................24
iii

Donovan v. Red Star Marine Servs., Inc., 739 F.2d
774 (2d Cir. 1984) .......................................................................................68
Freeman v. Burlington Broadcasters, Inc., 204 F.3d
311 (2d Cir. 2000) .......................................................................................22
Fulani v. FCC, 49 F.3d 904 (2d Cir. 1995).....................................................23
Gross v. FBL Fin. Servs., Inc., 557 U.S. 167 (2009) ......................................31
Hobbs v. County of Westchester, 397 F.3d 133 (2d
Cir. 2005)........................................................................................ 26, 27, 32
James V. Hurson Assocs., Inc. v. Glickman, 229
F.3d 277 (D.C. Cir. 2000) ...........................................................................71
JEM Broadcasting Co. v. FCC, 22 F.3d 320 (D.C.
Cir. 1994).............................................................................................. 68, 71
Lamoille Valley R.R. Co. v. ICC, 711 F.2d 295
(D.C. Cir. 1983)...........................................................................................71
Long Island Care at Home, Ltd. v. Coke, 551 U.S.
158 (2007) ............................................................................................ 71, 73
Merkos L’Inyonei Chinuch, Inc. v. Otsar Sifrei
Lubavitch, Inc., 312 F.3d 94 (2d Cir. 2002)................................................49
Mt. Mansfield Television, Inc. v. FCC, 442 F.2d 470
(2d Cir. 1971) ....................................................................................... 37, 72
National Black Media Coal. v. FCC, 822 F.2d 277
(2d Cir. 1987) ..............................................................................................72
National Cable & Telecomm. Ass’n v. Brand X
Internet Servs., 545 U.S. 967 (2005)...........................................................22
New York State Comm’n on Cable Television v.
FCC, 669 F.2d 58 (2d Cir. 1982) ................................................................23
Notaro v. Luther, 800 F.2d 290 (2d Cir. 1986) (per
curiam) ........................................................................................................68
Nuvio Corp. v. FCC, 473 F.3d 302 (D.C. Cir. 2006)......................................73
Regan v. Taxation with Representation of
Washington, 461 U.S. 540 (1983) ...............................................................34
Reynolds Metals Co. v. FERC, 777 F.2d 760 (D.C.
Cir. 1985).....................................................................................................65
iv

Ruiz v. County of Rockland, 609 F.3d 486 (2d Cir.
2010)............................................................................................................31
State of New York Dep’t of Soc. Servs. v. Shalala,
21 F.3d 485 (2d Cir. 1994) ..........................................................................72
Stilwell v. Office of Thrift Supervision, 569 F.3d 514
(D.C. Cir. 2009)...........................................................................................67
TCR Sports Broad. Holding v. FCC, 2012 WL
1672264 (4th Cir. May 14, 2012)................................................................41
Tepperwien v. Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.,
663 F.3d 556 (2d Cir. 2011) ........................................................................59
Time Warner Entm’t Co. v. FCC, 240 F.3d 1126
(D.C. Cir. 2001)...........................................................................................44
Time Warner Entm’t Co. v. FCC, 56 F.3d 151 (D.C.
Cir. 1995).....................................................................................................25
Time Warner Entm’t Co. v. FCC, 93 F.3d 957 (D.C.
Cir. 1996)............................................................................................. passim
Time Warner Entm’t Co. v. United States, 211 F.3d
1313 (D.C. Cir. 2000)........................................................................... 24, 33
Turner Broad. Sys., Inc. v. FCC, 512 U.S. 622
(1994) .................................................................................................. passim
Turner Broad. Sys., Inc. v. FCC, 520 U.S. 180
(1997) .................................................................................................. passim
United States v. O’Brien, 391 U.S. 367 (1968)...............................................35
United States v. Southwestern Cable Co., 392 U.S.
157 (1968) ...................................................................................................69
Universal City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 273 F.3d 429
(2d Cir. 2001) ..............................................................................................27
Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural
Res. Def. Council, 435 U.S. 519 (1978)......................................................70
Viacom Int’l Inc. v. FCC, 672 F.2d 1034 (2d Cir.
1982)............................................................................................................67
Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 491 U.S. 781 (1989) ................... 17, 26, 27, 46
v

WarnerVision Entm’t, Inc. v. Empire of Carolina,
Inc., 101 F.3d 259 (2d Cir. 1996)................................................................61
Washington State Grange v. Washington State
Republican Party, 552 U.S. 442 (2008) ................................... 21, 22, 24, 50
Williams v. Town of Greenburgh, 535 F.3d 71 (2d
Cir. 2008).....................................................................................................53
Winter v. Natural Res. Def. Council, 555 U.S. 7
(2008) ................................................................................................... 12, 64

ADMINISTRATIVE DECISIONS


Adelphia Commc’ns Corp., 21 FCC Rcd 8203
(2006) ..........................................................................................................51
Applications of Comcast Corp., Gen. Elec. Co. and
NBC Universal, Inc., 26 FCC Rcd 4238 (2011) ............................ 37, 38, 40
Herring Broad., Inc. v. Time Warner Cable Inc., 23
FCC Rcd 14787 (Med. Bur. 2008)....................................................... 48, 49
Implementation of Sections 12 and 19 of the Cable
Television Consumer Protection and Competition
Act of 1992
, 9 FCC Rcd 2642 (1993)................................................... 7, 8, 9
TCR Sports Broad. Holding v. Time Warner Cable
Inc., 25 FCC Rcd 18099 (2010), aff’d, TCR
Sports Broad. Holding v. FCC
, 2012 WL
1672264 (4th Cir. May 14, 2012)................................................................41
Tennis Channel, Inc. v. Comcast Cable Commc’ns,
LLC, 25 FCC Rcd 14149 (Med. Bur. 2010)......................................... 48, 49
Tennis Channel, Inc. v. Comcast Cable Commc’ns,
LLC, FCC 12-50 (released May 14, 2012)..................................................58

STATUTES AND REGULATIONS


5 U.S.C. § 553(b)(3)................................................................................. 60, 64
5 U.S.C. § 553(b)(A) .................................................................... 14, 19, 60, 61
5 U.S.C. § 706(2)(A) .......................................................................................21
28 U.S.C. § 2342(1) ..........................................................................................2
47 U.S.C. § 154(i) .................................................................................... 50, 56
vi

47 U.S.C. § 402(a).............................................................................................2
47 U.S.C. § 405 ...............................................................................................46
47 U.S.C. § 532 .......................................................................................... 6, 25
47 U.S.C. § 534 .................................................................................................6
47 U.S.C. § 536 ...................................................................................... 2, 6, 47
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)................................................................................... passim
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(1) ......................................................................................52
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(1)-(3) ........................................................................... 6, 18
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(2) ......................................................................................52
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(3) .............................................................................. passim
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(4) ........................................................................................7
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(5) ........................................................................................7
47 U.S.C. § 544(f)(1) ......................................................................... 14, 50, 55
47 U.S.C. § 548 .................................................................................................6
47 C.F.R. §§ 1.43-1.45 ....................................................................................58
47 C.F.R. § 1.45(d)..........................................................................................61
47 C.F.R. § 1.298 ............................................................................................58
47 C.F.R. § 1.298(a) ........................................................................................61
47 C.F.R. § 76.7(e)(1) .....................................................................................61
47 C.F.R. § 76.10(a) ........................................................................................58
47 C.F.R. § 76.10(a)(2) ...................................................................................58
47 C.F.R. § 76.1301(c) ............................................................................ passim
47 C.F.R. § 76.1302(d)....................................................................................11
47 C.F.R. § 76.1302(d)(3)(iii)(B)(2)(i) ...........................................................27
Cable Television Consumer Protection and
Competition Act of 1992, Pub. L. No. 102-385,
106 Stat. 1460................................................................................................2
1992 Cable Act, § 2(a)(4)..................................................................................5
1992 Cable Act, § 2(a)(5)........................................................................ passim
vii

OTHER MATERIALS


H.R. Rep. No. 102-628 (1992) ................................................................. 28, 34
S. Rep. No. 102-92 (1991) ...................................................................... passim



viii

IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT

NO. 11-4138 (CONSOLIDATED WITH NO. 11-
5152)

TIME WARNER CABLE INC. AND NATIONAL CABLE &
TELECOMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION,
PETITIONERS,
V.
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
AND UNITED STATES OF AMERICA,
RESPONDENTS.

ON PETITION FOR REVIEW OF AN ORDER OF THE
FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION

BRIEF FOR RESPONDENTS

JURISDICTION

The order on review—Revision of the Commission’s Program
Carriage Rules, 26 FCC Rcd 11494 (2011) (JA____) (“Order”)—was
published in the Federal Register on September 29, 2011. 76 Fed. Reg.
60,652 (2011). Time Warner Cable Inc. (“TWC”) filed a timely petition for
review in this Court on October 11, 2011. The National Cable &
Telecommunications Association (“NCTA”) filed a timely petition for review
in the United States Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit on

November 7, 2011. That case was subsequently transferred to this Court,
which has jurisdiction to review the Order under 47 U.S.C. § 402(a) and 28
U.S.C. § 2342(1).

INTRODUCTION AND STATEMENT OF ISSUES PRESENTED

In the Cable Television Consumer Protection and Competition Act of
1992, Pub. L. No. 102-385, 106 Stat. 1460 (“1992 Cable Act”), Congress
enacted a series of inter-related provisions designed to promote competition
and diversity among programming networks in the pay-TV market. One of
those provisions, Section 616 of the Communications Act of 1934, 47 U.S.C.
§ 536, requires the Federal Communications Commission (“FCC” or
“Commission”) to promulgate rules designed to prevent a “multichannel
video programming distributor” or “MVPD”—for example, a cable operator
(like Comcast) or direct broadcast satellite provider (like DIRECTV)—from
engaging in certain anticompetitive acts concerning the MVPD’s carriage of
video programming.
As relevant here, Section 616 specifies that the FCC’s rules must
prevent MVPDs from discriminating against “programming vendors” (i.e.,
programming networks) “in the selection, terms, or conditions for carriage”
of programming “on the basis of” the programming vendor’s “affiliation or
nonaffiliation” with the MVPD if such discrimination would “unreasonably
2

restrain the ability” of an unaffiliated programming vendor “to compete
fairly.” 47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(3).
As directed by Congress, the FCC adopted rules implementing Section
616. Those rules allow a programming network that is unaffiliated with an
MVPD (e.g., the NFL Network) to file with the agency a complaint alleging
that an MVPD has engaged in affiliation-based discrimination against the
network. For example, the unaffiliated network may allege that a cable
operator refused to carry the network on its cable systems (while carrying a
competing affiliated network) or that the cable operator granted preferential
treatment to its affiliated network and carried the complainant network on
less favorable terms.
This case presents the following issues for review:
(1) Whether the FCC’s program carriage rules, which provide for
case-by-case adjudication of complaints under Section 616, regulate MVPDs’
conduct in a manner consistent with the First Amendment.
(2) Whether the Commission permissibly concluded that it has
authority to issue “standstill” orders requiring a cable operator to continue
carrying a vendor’s programming under the terms of an existing contract
while the Commission considers the vendor’s program carriage complaint.
3

(3) Whether the Commission complied with the Administrative
Procedure Act (“APA”) when it codified its procedure for considering
requests for program carriage standstill orders.

STATUTES AND REGULATIONS

Pertinent statutes and regulations are set forth in an addendum to this
brief.

COUNTERSTATEMENT OF THE CASE

More than a decade after adopting its program carriage rules, the FCC
concluded that the rules were not effectively achieving the statute’s
competition-enhancing objectives. Consequently, in 2011, the Commission
revised its rules by, inter alia, (a) clarifying the evidentiary requirements for
establishing a prima facie case of program carriage discrimination, and (b)
codifying the agency’s procedure for granting a program carriage
complainant an interim stay (or “standstill”) preserving the status quo while a
complaint is pending before the agency. Order ¶¶ 9-30 (JA____-____).
Petitioners ask the Court to invalidate the FCC’s program carriage
rules—and, “if necessary” (TW Br. 24 n.10), the underlying statute—on
constitutional, statutory, and administrative-law grounds.

4

COUNTERSTATEMENT OF FACTS

A. The Program Carriage Statute

By the early 1990s, the cable television industry had grown “highly
concentrated.” 1992 Cable Act, § 2(a)(4). Congress became concerned that
“such concentration” could reduce “the number of media voices available to
consumers” by creating “barriers to entry for new programmers.” Id.
This threat to competition in the video programming and distribution
markets was “exacerbated by the increased vertical integration” (i.e., common
ownership) of producers and distributors of cable programming. S. Rep. No.
102-92, at 24 (1991) (“Senate Report”). Congress found that vertical
integration gives cable operators “the incentive and ability to favor their
affiliated programmers” and “[to] make it more difficult for noncable-
affiliated programmers to secure carriage on cable systems.” 1992 Cable Act,
§ 2(a)(5). For example, a vertically integrated cable operator “might give its
affiliated programmer a more desirable channel position than another
programmer, or even refuse to carry other programmers.” Senate Report at
25. By engaging in this sort of discrimination, a cable operator could give its
affiliated programmer an unfair advantage over competing unaffiliated
programmers in terms of attracting viewers and advertising revenues.
5

To guard against the potentially anticompetitive effects of vertical
integration, Congress added Section 616 to the Communications Act when it
1
adopted the 1992 Cable Act. See 47 U.S.C. § 536. Section 616 directs the
FCC to “establish regulations governing program carriage agreements and
related practices between cable operators or other [MVPDs] and video
programming vendors.” Id. § 536(a). The statute requires the Commission to
adopt rules “designed to prevent” or “prohibit” any MVPD from: (1)
“requiring a financial interest” in a program service as a condition of carriage;
(2) “coercing” a programming vendor to provide “exclusive rights” against
other MVPDs as a condition of carriage (or “retaliating against” a vendor for
failing to do so); and (3) “discriminating” in the selection, terms, or
conditions of carriage “on the basis of affiliation or nonaffiliation” of
programming vendors if the effect of such discrimination is “to unreasonably
restrain” the ability of an unaffiliated vendor “to compete fairly.” Id.
§ 536(a)(1)-(3).

1 The 1992 Cable Act contained companion provisions that likewise
promote competition and diversity in the video distribution market, including
“must-carry” provisions that require most cable operators to carry local
commercial broadcast television stations, see 47 U.S.C. § 534; “program
access” provisions designed to limit the ability of vertically integrated cable
operators to withhold programming from their competitors in the MVPD
market, see id. § 548; and “leased access” provisions that require cable
operators to lease channel space to unaffiliated networks at regulated rates,
see id. § 532.
6

The discrimination provision, which is the principal focus of this case,
may, for example, address the situation where an unaffiliated network
complains that an MVPD rejected its request for carriage in an effort to shield
the MVPD’s own affiliated networks from competition (out of concern that
the affiliates’ advertising revenues may suffer if viewers instead decide to
watch the unaffiliated network). That conduct would violate the statute if (a)
the MVPD is found to have refused carriage because of the network’s
unaffiliated status, and (b) the discriminatory refusal to carry had the effect of
unreasonably restraining the unaffiliated network’s ability to compete fairly.
The statute requires the Commission to “provide for expedited review
of any complaints made by a video programming vendor” under Section 616.
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(4). The Commission also must “provide for appropriate
penalties and remedies for violations” of the statute, “including carriage.” Id.
§ 536(a)(5).

B. The FCC’s Original Program Carriage Rules

The Commission first adopted rules to implement Section 616 in 1993.
Implementation of Sections 12 and 19 of the Cable Television Consumer
Protection and Competition Act of 1992, 9 FCC Rcd 2642 (1993) (“1993
Order”).
7

In adopting those rules, the agency emphasized that it would evaluate
each individual program carriage complaint on the basis of “the specific facts
pertaining to each negotiation, and the manner in which certain rights were
obtained, in order to determine whether a violation has, in fact, occurred.”
1993 Order, 9 FCC Rcd at 2648 ¶ 14. The Commission explained that by
“focus[ing] on the specific facts” of each negotiation, it could remedy
violations of Section 616 “without unduly interfering with legitimate
negotiating practices between [MVPDs] and programming vendors.” Id. at
2643 ¶ 1.
The Commission also adopted procedural rules to govern program
carriage complaints. Under those rules, a programming vendor that files a
complaint with the agency bears the burden of proof “to establish a prima
facie showing that the defendant [MVPD] has engaged in behavior that is
prohibited” by Section 616. 1993 Order, 9 FCC Rcd at 2654 ¶ 29. The
complainant may not rely on bare allegations; the complaint “must be
supported by documentary evidence” (including, for example, affidavits). Id.
If the FCC’s Media Bureau concludes that the complainant has not made a
prima facie showing based on the complaint (and any supporting
documentation), the complaint will be dismissed. Id. at 2655 ¶ 31. In this
8

respect, the prima facie case requirement performs a screening function akin
to a pre-trial dispositive motion in federal court.
If the Media Bureau finds that the complainant has made a prima facie
case, it must determine whether it can grant relief on the basis of the existing
record (i.e., the complaint and any supporting documents, the defendant’s
answer, and the complainant’s reply). If the Bureau concludes that the record
is insufficient to resolve the complaint, it can either outline procedures for
discovery or refer the matter to an administrative law judge (“ALJ”) for a
hearing. 1993 Order, 9 FCC Rcd at 2655 ¶ 31.
The Commission underscored that it would “determine the appropriate
relief for program carriage violations on a case-by-case basis.” 1993 Order, 9
FCC Rcd at 2653 ¶ 26. “Available remedies and sanctions include
forfeitures, mandatory carriage, or carriage on terms revised or specified by
the Commission.” Id.

C. The Order

On Review
Almost twenty years after the FCC promulgated its program carriage
rules, very few parties had filed complaints. As of August 2011 (when the
Commission released the order on review), only “[e]leven program carriage
complaints [had] been filed in the approximately two decades since Congress
passed Section 616.” Order n.27 (JA____). This paucity of complaints did
9

not simply reflect an absence of affiliation-based discrimination.
Programming vendors complained that “the Commission’s procedures for
addressing program carriage complaints [had] hindered the filing of
legitimate complaints and [had] failed to provide for the expedited review
envisioned by Congress.” Order ¶ 1 (JA____).
To address these problems, the Commission issued a notice of
proposed rulemaking in June 2007, seeking comment on “whether and how
[the FCC’s] processes for resolving carriage disputes should be modified.”
Leased Commercial Access, 22 FCC Rcd 11222, 11227 ¶ 14 (2007) (JA____,
____) (“NPRM”). After reviewing comments from various interested parties,
including both cable operators and unaffiliated programming vendors (see
Order, Appx. A (JA____)), the Commission concluded that its current
program carriage procedures were “in need of reform.” Order ¶ 8 (JA____).
Accordingly, in 2011, the agency took several “initial steps to improve” its
2
procedures. Id. (JA____).
Among other things, the Commission clarified the evidentiary
requirements for establishing a prima facie case of a program carriage

2 The Commission simultaneously commenced a new rulemaking
proceeding in which it proposed further revisions to its program carriage
rules. Order ¶¶ 3, 37-81 (JA____-____, ____-____). That proceeding
remains pending.
10

violation. Order ¶¶ 10-17 (JA____-____); 47 C.F.R. § 76.1302(d). It also
imposed deadlines on FCC staff to expedite the resolution of carriage
complaints. Order ¶¶ 19-24 (JA____-____).
In addition, the agency codified its procedure “for the Media Bureau’s
consideration of requests for a temporary standstill of the price, terms, and
other conditions of an existing programming contract by a program carriage
complainant seeking renewal of such a contract.” Order ¶ 25 (JA____).
While noting that program carriage complainants already could seek and
obtain standstill orders (i.e., an interim stay pending administrative review)
under existing FCC practice, the Commission explained that “codifying
uniform procedures will help to expedite action on standstill requests and
provide guidance to complainants and MVPDs.” Order ¶ 26 (JA____).
The Commission observed that a standstill, if granted, would “preserve
the status quo by requiring continued carriage of a network” that the
defendant MVPD has already chosen to carry “at the time the standstill is
granted.” Order n.109 (JA____). Applying the same standard that courts use
to grant preliminary injunctive relief, the agency specified that an applicant
for a standstill order must show that: (i) it is likely to prevail on the merits of
its complaint; (ii) it will suffer irreparable harm absent a stay; (iii) grant of a
stay will not substantially harm other interested parties; and (iv) the public
11

interest favors grant of a stay. Order ¶ 27 (JA____-____). The Commission
emphasized that “injunctive relief [is] an extraordinary remedy that may only
be awarded upon a clear showing that the plaintiff is entitled to such relief.”
Order n.110 (JA____) (quoting Winter v. Natural Res. Def. Council, 555 U.S.
7, 22 (2008)).
Where the Media Bureau determines that a temporary standstill is
justified, it “may limit the length of the standstill to a defined period or may
specify that the standstill will continue until the adjudicator”—i.e., either the
Media Bureau or an ALJ—“resolves the underlying program carriage
complaint.” Order ¶ 27 (JA____). “The adjudicator may lift the temporary
standstill to the extent that it finds that the stay is having a negative effect on
settlement negotiations or is otherwise no longer in the public interest.” Id.
Once the adjudicator rules on the merits of the complaint, it “will apply the
terms of the new agreement between the parties, if any, as of the expiration
date of the previous agreement.” Order ¶ 28 (JA____).
The Commission rejected the cable industry’s claims that the program
carriage rules violate the First Amendment. Order ¶ 31 (JA____). First, the
agency found that the rules are “subject to intermediate scrutiny” because
they regulate economic activity “based on affiliation with an MVPD, not
based on … content.” Order ¶ 32 (JA____-____) (citing Time Warner
12

Entm’t Co. v. FCC, 93 F.3d 957, 969 (D.C. Cir. 1996)). Second, the agency
concluded that the rules satisfy intermediate scrutiny because they advance
two substantial government interests—“promoting diversity and competition
in the video programming market” (Order ¶ 32 (JA___))—and “burden no
more speech than necessary” to prevent the conduct that Section 616
proscribes. Id. ¶ 34 (JA____).
TWC contended that Congress’s justification for the program carriage
rules “no longer exists today.” Order ¶ 33 (JA____). It based that claim on
national data documenting a decrease in vertical integration and an increase
in programming networks, channel capacity, and competition among MVPDs
since Congress passed the 1992 Cable Act. TWC Comments at 7-10 (JA___-
___). But the Commission explained that the “nationwide figures” cited by
TWC “do not undermine Congress’s finding that cable operators and other
MVPDs have the incentive and ability to favor their affiliated programming
vendors in individual cases, with the potential to unreasonably restrain the
ability of an unaffiliated programming vendor to compete fairly.” Order ¶ 33
(JA____-____) (emphasis added). The agency specifically noted that “the
number of cable-affiliated networks recently increased significantly” after the
merger between Comcast (the largest MVPD in the nation) and NBC
13

Universal. This “highlight[ed] the continued need for an effective program
carriage complaint regime.” Id. (JA____).
In addition, the Commission rejected the suggestion that Section
624(f)(1) of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. § 544(f)(1), precludes the
agency from issuing interim standstill orders. Order n.107 (JA____). The
agency acknowledged that Section 624(f)(1) bars the Commission from
imposing “requirements regarding the provision or content of cable services,
except as expressly provided in [Title VI of the Act].” Id. (quoting 47 U.S.C.
§ 544(f)(1)). The Commission explained, however, that standstill orders fall
within the exception to this prohibition. “Section 616(a) expressly directs the
Commission to ‘establish regulations governing program carriage agreements
and related practices.’” Id. (quoting 47 U.S.C. § 536(a)).
Finally, the Commission rejected the argument that the APA required
the agency to issue another rulemaking notice before it could codify its
procedure for obtaining standstill relief. See Order ¶ 36 & n.146 (JA____).
The Commission noted that the APA expressly exempts “rules of agency
procedure” from its notice requirements. Order ¶ 36 (JA____ -____) (citing
5 U.S.C. § 553(b)(A)). It reasoned that this exemption applied to the
standstill rule, which merely codified existing agency procedure. The
Commission further determined that the public received adequate notice of
14

the standstill rule in any event. Order ¶ 36 (JA____) (citing NPRM ¶ 16
(JA____)).

SUMMARY OF ARGUMENT

In enacting legislation to protect competition and promote diversity of
voices in the video distribution and programming markets, Congress found
that the common ownership of cable systems and programming networks
gives cable operators “the incentive and ability to favor their affiliated
programmers” and to “make it more difficult for noncable-affiliated
programmers to secure carriage on cable systems.” 1992 Cable Act,
§ 2(a)(5). As directed by Congress, the FCC has established rules to ensure
that vertically integrated MVPDs do not act on their incentive and ability to
discriminate “on the basis of affiliation or nonaffiliation” in a manner that
“unreasonably restrain[s]” an unaffiliated programming vendor’s ability to
“compete fairly.” 47 C.F.R. § 76.1301(c); 47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(3). In this
proceeding, the Commission properly determined that concerns about
competition persist and that the agency’s program carriage rules comport with
the First Amendment. It also correctly concluded that its standstill procedure
is authorized by statute and complies with the APA.
I. The challenged rules are subject to intermediate (not strict) First
Amendment scrutiny because they are content-neutral. The rules do not
15

regulate speech “because of [agreement or] disagreement with the message it
conveys.” Turner Broad. Sys., Inc. v. FCC, 512 U.S. 622, 642 (1994)
(“Turner I”) (quoting Ward v. Rock Against Racism, 491 U.S. 781, 791
(1989)). Rather, they “regulat[e] cable programmers and operators on the
basis of the ‘economics of ownership,’ a characteristic unrelated to the
content of speech.” Time Warner, 93 F.3d at 977.
Under intermediate scrutiny, a content-neutral regulation must be
upheld if it: (1) “advances important governmental interests unrelated to the
suppression of free speech”; and (2) “does not burden substantially more
speech than necessary to further those interests.” Turner Broad. Sys., Inc. v.
FCC, 520 U.S. 180, 189 (1997) (“Turner II”). The program carriage rules
satisfy both parts of that test.
The rules advance two important government interests: promoting
competition and “assuring that the public has access to a multiplicity of
information sources.” Turner I, 512 U.S. at 663. Petitioners maintain that
the rules are obsolete because cable operators no longer hold a “bottleneck”
monopoly. But Congress’s concerns in enacting the 1992 Cable Act were not
limited to addressing such “bottleneck” market power. Rather, Congress was
also concerned that vertically integrated MVPDs have the “incentive and
ability” to favor affiliated over unaffiliated networks. 1992 Cable Act,
16

§ 2(a)(5). In any event, petitioners are wrong in suggesting that cable
operators no longer have significant market power. As the D.C. Circuit
recently recognized, the “clustering and consolidation” of cable systems have
“bolster[ed] the market power of cable operators,” and some local markets
remain “‘highly susceptible to near-monopoly control by a cable company.’”
Cablevision Sys. Corp. v. FCC, 649 F.3d 695, 712 (D.C. Cir. 2011) (citation
omitted).
The program carriage rules do not burden substantially more speech
than necessary to promote the government’s interests. The Commission
ordinarily will not require an MVPD to carry programming unless a
complainant proves that the MVPD has violated Section 616. While the
Commission may issue a standstill order temporarily requiring an MVPD to
continue carrying a network it already has chosen to carry (during the
pendency of the program carriage dispute), such an order is issued only in
extraordinary circumstances and only upon proof of, inter alia, likelihood of
success on the merits and irreparable harm to the complainant. Thus, the
standstill procedure, like the underlying carriage discrimination provision, is
narrowly tailored to address only affiliation-based discrimination that
“unreasonably restrain[s] the ability of an unaffiliated video programming
vendor to compete fairly.” 47 C.F.R. § 76.1301(c); see also 47 U.S.C.
17

§ 536(a)(3). These rules “specifically target” anticompetitive activities
“where the government interest is greatest.” Cablevision, 649 F.3d at 712.
II. The Commission also correctly concluded that it has authority to
issue program carriage standstill orders. Section 616 expressly directs the
FCC to establish rules “designed to prevent” or “prohibit” MVPDs—
including cable operators—from adopting specified practices that adversely
affect competition. See 47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(1)-(3). The standstill rule falls
within that express grant of rulemaking authority. Program carriage standstill
orders are designed to prevent MVPDs from taking actions that violate
Section 616.
III. Finally, the Commission complied with the APA when it codified
the standards for granting interim standstill relief. Petitioners’ contrary
claims lack merit.
Petitioners claim that the standstill rule is arbitrary and capricious
because its costs purportedly outweigh its benefits. The Commission
reasonably found otherwise. In applying the standstill rule, the Commission
follows the same approach used by courts when considering stay requests.
Among other things, the Commission considers whether “grant of a stay will
… substantially harm other interested parties” and whether “the public
interest favors grant of a stay.” Order ¶ 27 (JA___). Thus, the costs of
18

granting standstill relief in any particular case will be fully considered and
weighed against the benefits in case-by-case adjudication.
The Commission also acted consistently with the APA’s procedural
requirements. The standstill rule did not alter existing rights or obligations; it
merely codified the FCC’s existing practices. Therefore, as a rule of agency
procedure, it was exempt from the APA’s notice requirements. 5 U.S.C.
§ 553(b)(A). Furthermore, even assuming that the APA required public
notice of the standstill rule, the Commission provided sufficient notice. The
rulemaking notice that commenced this proceeding specifically sought
comment on a proposal for “additional rules to protect programmers from
potential retaliation if they file a complaint.” NPRM ¶ 16 (JA____). The
standstill rule was a logical outgrowth of that proposal.

STANDARD OF REVIEW

The Court “review[s] an agency’s disposition of constitutional issues
de novo.” Cablevision Sys. Corp. v. FCC, 570 F.3d 83, 91 (2d Cir. 2009).
Here, petitioners mount a broadside First Amendment attack on the program
carriage statute itself, as well as the FCC’s implementing rules. See TWC Br.
24 n.10. To prevail on this facial challenge, petitioners must show at a
minimum that “a substantial number” of the rules’ applications “are
unconstitutional, judged in relation to the [rules’] plainly legitimate sweep.”
19

Adams v. Zenas Zelotes, Esq., 606 F.3d 34, 38 (2d Cir. 2010) (citation
omitted); see also Washington State Grange v. Washington State Republican
Party, 552 U.S. 442, 449 (2008) (“a facial challenge must fail where the
statute has a ‘plainly legitimate sweep”’) (citation omitted).
In assessing petitioners’ claim that the statute and implementing rules
are “facially invalid” under the First Amendment, the Court “must be careful
not to go beyond the [rules’] facial requirements and speculate about
‘hypothetical’ or ‘imaginary’ cases.” Washington State Grange, 552 U.S. at
449-50.
Petitioners’ challenge to the FCC’s statutory authority to adopt the
standstill rule is governed by Chevron USA, Inc. v. Natural Res. Def. Council,
Inc., 467 U.S. 837 (1984). If a statutory provision is ambiguous and the
implementing agency’s reading of that provision is reasonable, Chevron
requires the Court “to accept the agency’s construction of the statute, even if
the agency’s reading differs from what the [Court] believes is the best
statutory interpretation.” National Cable & Telecomm. Ass’n v. Brand X
Internet Servs., 545 U.S. 967, 980 (2005). In particular, the FCC’s
“reasonable interpretation[ ] of the scope of [its] authority” under the
Communications Act is “entitled to deference under Chevron.” Freeman v.
Burlington Broadcasters, Inc., 204 F.3d 311, 321-22 (2d Cir. 2000).
20

With respect to petitioners’ APA claims, the Court “may reverse” the
Order “only if [the FCC’s decision] was ‘arbitrary, capricious, an abuse of
discretion, or otherwise not in accordance with law.’” Cellular Phone
Taskforce v. FCC, 205 F.3d 82, 89 (2d Cir. 2000) (quoting 5 U.S.C.
§ 706(2)(A)). That standard of review is “highly deferential.” Connecticut
Dep’t of Pub. Util. Control v. FCC, 78 F.3d 842, 849 (2d Cir. 1996) (quoting
Fulani v. FCC, 49 F.3d 904, 908 (2d Cir. 1995)). The Court may not
“substitute [its] judgment for that of the agency.” New York State Comm’n
on Cable Television v. FCC, 669 F.2d 58, 63 (2d Cir. 1982).

ARGUMENT

I.

THE PROGRAM CARRIAGE RULES ARE CONSISTENT
WITH THE FIRST AMENDMENT

The FCC has yet to apply its revised program carriage rules to any
particular case. Nonetheless, petitioners contend that those rules violate the
First Amendment “by supplanting MVPDs’ considered editorial judgments
about what programming to carry.” TWC Br. 21. To succeed in such a
challenge, petitioners must establish that the rules are unconstitutional on
their face. This sort of facial challenge is “generally disfavored” and seldom
granted. Dickerson v. Napolitano, 604 F.3d 732, 741 (2d Cir. 2010); see also
Washington State Grange, 552 U.S. at 450. Indeed, courts have repeatedly
rejected the cable industry’s facial First Amendment challenges to related
21

3
provisions of the 1992 Cable Act and the FCC’s implementing rules.
Petitioners’ facial challenge in this case should fare no better.
Like the underlying program carriage statute, the FCC’s implementing
rules—including its case-by-case procedure for granting standstill relief—are
not content-based and therefore are subject to intermediate First Amendment
scrutiny. The rules “regulat[e] cable programmers and operators on the basis
of the ‘economics of ownership,’ a characteristic unrelated to the content of
speech.” Time Warner, 93 F.3d at 977. Designed “to promote speech, not to
restrict it,” id., the program carriage rules satisfy intermediate scrutiny
because they are justified by the same substantial governmental interests that
undergird related provisions of the 1992 Act: promoting “fair competition”

3 See, e.g., Turner II, 520 U.S. 180 (rejecting First Amendment challenge to
must-carry statute); Cablevision, 649 F.3d 695 (rejecting First Amendment
challenge to FCC’s program access rules); Cablevision Sys. Corp. v. FCC,
597 F.3d 1306, 1312 (D.C. Cir. 2010) (petitioners’ First Amendment
challenges to the statutory ban on exclusive contracts between cable operators
and cable-affiliated programmers were indistinguishable “from the
[arguments the court] already rejected in the facial challenge” in the 1996
Time Warner case); Time Warner Entm’t Co. v. United States, 211 F.3d 1313
(D.C. Cir. 2000) (rejecting First Amendment challenges to statutory
provisions limiting number of cable operator’s subscribers and number of
channels on its cable system devoted to programming in which the operator
has a financial interest); Time Warner, 93 F.3d 957 (rejecting First
Amendment challenges to multiple provisions of the 1992 Cable Act,
including leased access and program access provisions); Time Warner Entm’t
Co. v. FCC
, 56 F.3d 151, 178-86 (D.C. Cir. 1995) (rejecting First
Amendment challenge to FCC’s cable rate regulations).
22

and “the widespread dissemination of information from a multiplicity of
sources,” Turner I, 512 U.S. at 662. Further, the rules do not burden
substantially more speech than necessary to advance those interests. They are
therefore constitutional.

A. The Rules Are Subject To Intermediate Scrutiny.

The level of First Amendment scrutiny in this case depends on whether
the challenged rules are “content based or content neutral.” Cablevision, 570
F.3d at 96. Courts apply “strict scrutiny” to regulations that discriminate “on
the basis of content” and “a more lenient analysis to content-neutral
regulations.” Bery v. City of New York, 97 F.3d 689, 696 (2d Cir. 1996).
The “most exacting” First Amendment scrutiny is reserved for
“regulations that suppress, disadvantage, or impose differential burdens upon
speech because of its content” and “[l]aws that compel speakers to utter or
distribute speech bearing a particular message.” Turner I, 512 U.S. at 642.
“In contrast, a less stringent test”—intermediate scrutiny—applies to
“regulations of expressive activity that are not based on content.” Hobbs v.
County of Westchester, 397 F.3d 133, 149 (2d Cir. 2005).
“Government regulation of expressive activity is content neutral so
long as it is justified without reference to the content of the regulated speech.”
Hobbs, 397 F.3d at 149 (quoting Ward, 491 U.S. at 791). “The government’s
23

purpose is the controlling consideration. A regulation that serves purposes
unrelated to the content of expression is deemed neutral, even if it has an
incidental effect on some speakers or messages but not others.” Universal
City Studios, Inc. v. Corley, 273 F.3d 429, 450 (2d Cir. 2001) (quoting Ward,
491 U.S. at 791).
The Commission correctly found that the regulations at issue here are
content-neutral. The program carriage rules do not regulate speech “because
of [agreement or] disagreement with the message it conveys.” Turner I, 512
U.S. at 642 (quoting Ward, 491 U.S. at 791). Rather, they serve “purposes
unrelated to the content of expression.” Hobbs, 397 F.3d at 150 (quoting
Ward, 491 U.S. at 791). The rules are designed to prevent MVPDs from
engaging in anticompetitive practices with respect to programming vendors.
Petitioners’ challenge “focuses on” the rule barring affiliation-based
carriage discrimination. TWC Br. 3 n.1; see also NCTA Br. 47 n.10. That
rule prohibits MVPDs from “discriminating … on the basis of affiliation or
nonaffiliation of [video programming] vendors in the selection, terms, or
conditions for carriage of video programming” if the effect of such
discrimination “is to unreasonably restrain the ability of an unaffiliated video
programming vendor to compete fairly.” 47 C.F.R. § 76.1301(c); see also 47
24

U.S.C. § 536(a)(3). As the Commission explained, the rule regulates speech
“based on affiliation with an MVPD, not based on … content.” Order ¶ 32
(JA____).
In that respect, the discrimination rule closely resembles the leased
access statute, which requires cable operators to make channels available for
lease by unaffiliated programmers. 47 U.S.C. § 532. The “objective” of both
leased access and program carriage regulation is “framed in terms of the
sources of information rather than the substance of the information.” Time
Warner, 93 F.3d at 969. In each case, the rationale for regulation is not
related to “the content of [programmers’] speech,” but to the programmers’
“lack of affiliation with” an MVPD. Id. In rejecting a First Amendment
challenge to the leased access statute, the D.C. Circuit applied intermediate
scrutiny. Id. at 967-71. The same standard of review applies here.
Petitioners argue that the carriage discrimination rule and the derivative
standstill rule are “content-based” because, in some cases, their application
depends on a finding that unaffiliated programming is “similarly situated” to
affiliated programming. TWC Br. 24-28; NCTA Br. 53-55. That contention
misapprehends both the concept of a “content-based” regulation of speech
and the nature of the FCC’s “similarly situated” analysis.
25

The “principal inquiry in determining content neutrality … is whether
the government has adopted a regulation of speech because of [agreement or]
disagreement with the message it conveys.” Turner I, 512 U.S. at 642
(citation omitted). Here, “there is simply no hint” that the government has
done so. BellSouth Corp. v. FCC, 144 F.3d 58, 69 (D.C. Cir. 1998). In those
situations where the Commission considers the content of programming to
determine whether the defendant MVPD discriminated “on the basis of
affiliation or nonaffiliation,” it is solely for purposes of comparing the
complainant’s programming with programming that the defendant’s affiliated
network has chosen to carry—whatever the content may be. Cf. Turner I, 512
U.S. at 655 (must-carry rules “confer benefits upon all full-power, local
broadcasters, whatever the content of their programming”). The particular
content of the programming at issue is irrelevant; the same comparative
analysis applies regardless of the specific type of programming involved.
Thus, the program carriage rules are not “structured in a manner that raise[s]
suspicions that [their] objective was, in fact, the suppression of certain ideas.”
4
Time Warner, 93 F.3d at 978 (quoting Turner I, 512 U.S. at 660).

4 Pointing to a footnote in Turner I, petitioners note that one provision of
the must-carry statute “appears to single out certain low-power broadcasters
for special benefits on the basis of content.” TWC Br. 30-31 (citing Turner I,
512 U.S. at 643 n.6). That footnote does not advance petitioners’ argument.
26

In any event, petitioners exaggerate the role of content in the agency’s
analysis. See, e.g., TWC Br. 30. The FCC examines whether programming
is “similarly situated” simply to ascertain whether the complainant has made
a circumstantial case of discrimination— which logically entails a
comparison of the defendant MVPD’s treatment of its own affiliates with its
treatment of nonaffiliates. See Order ¶ 14 (JA____-____); 47 C.F.R.
§ 76.1302(d)(3)(iii)(B)(2)(i). When an unaffiliated network relies on
circumstantial evidence to support its claim that the defendant afforded
preferential treatment to its own affiliated networks, it makes sense to inquire

First, unlike the low-power provision in Turner I, which expressly focused on
whether programming “would address local news and informational needs,”
the program carriage provision at issue here does not even arguably “single
out” any entities “on the basis of content.” 512 U.S. at 643 n.6. Second, the
Court in Turner I expressly declined to resolve whether the low-power
provision was content-based. Id.
27

whether the programming carried on the networks is similar. That inquiry
5
does not reflect a preference for particular programming content.
Moreover, the Commission does not focus exclusively (or even
primarily) on content when undertaking its “similarly situated” analysis.
Rather, it considers an array of factors, including “genre, ratings, license fee,
target audience, target advertisers, [and] target programming.” Order ¶ 14
(JA____). Many of those factors (such as ratings and license fees) have
nothing to do with programming content. As the Commission explained, “no
single factor is necessarily dispositive”: the “more factors that are found to
be similar, the more likely” the complainant’s programming “will be
considered similarly situated” to MVPD-affiliated programming. Id.
(JA____).
This Court has recognized that a regulation may be content-neutral
even if its implementation entails some analysis of content, so long as “the

5 Admitting evidence of disparate treatment of similarly situated parties as
circumstantial evidence supporting a showing of intentional discrimination is
a hallmark of discrimination law. See, e.g., Ruiz v. County of Rockland, 609
F.3d 486, 493-94 (2d Cir. 2010); see also Gross v. FBL Fin. Servs., Inc., 557
U.S. 167, 189 (2009). That the FCC adopted a similar approach in
implementing the program carriage statute’s discrimination provision does
not imply any illicit attempt to regulate the content of speech. Indeed, the
House Committee Report on the statute notes that “[a]n extensive body of
law exists addressing discrimination in normal business practices, and the
Committee intends the Commission to be guided by these precedents.” H.R.
Rep. No. 102-628, at 110 (1992) (“House Report”).
28

specific content of the speech” is “irrelevant” to the regulatory “goal.”
Hobbs, 397 F.3d at 152. In Hobbs, a street performer challenged a
Westchester County policy that barred any person convicted of a sexual
offense against a minor from obtaining a permit to perform using props on
County property if the performance would entice a child to congregate around
that person. Id. at 143-44. The Court held that the County’s policy was a
permissible content-neutral regulation of speech because it “focuses on the
safety of children” and “is not concerned with the content of the message.”
Id. at 152. The Court explained that although County officials examine “the
content of the applicant’s proposed presentation” to determine “whether [it] is
likely to attract a crowd of children,” the County’s analysis of content did not
trigger strict scrutiny because “the specific content of the speech” was
“irrelevant to the governmental goal” of protecting children. Id. at 152-53.
Here, as in Hobbs, “there is absolutely no evidence, nor even any
serious suggestion, that the Commission” issued the substantive program
carriage rule (or codified the standard for obtaining derivative standstill
relief) “to [favor or] disfavor certain messages or ideas.” Cablevision, 649
F.3d at 717. The agency adopted those provisions because of “[the]
programming’s economic characteristics, not … its communicative impact.”
Id. at 718.
29

Petitioners further contend that strict scrutiny should apply because
“the program carriage rules prefer the speech of unaffiliated programmers to
the speech of MVPDs and their affiliated programmers.” TWC Br. 28.
According to petitioners, it is “unconstitutional” for the FCC to promote “the
speech of a certain category of speaker … over others.” TWC Br. 42. The
D.C. Circuit, however, has rejected a virtually identical argument. In Time
Warner, 211 F.3d at 1321, it found no merit in TWC’s argument that
“because the Congress expressed concern that cable operators might favor
their affiliated programming services[,] the legislature’s ‘stated design was to
suppress cable operators’ speech,’ and to advance the speech of nonaffiliated
programmers.” Instead, the D.C. Circuit concluded that “the legislative
concern was not with the speech of a particular source but solely with
promoting diversity and competition in the cable industry.” Id. The same is
true here.
Petitioners incorrectly assume that “all speaker-partial laws are
presumed invalid.” Turner I, 512 U.S. at 658. The Supreme Court, however,
has made clear that “speaker-based laws demand strict scrutiny” only “when
they reflect the Government’s preference for the substance of what the
favored speakers have to say (or aversion to what the disfavored speakers
have to say).” Id. (citing Regan v. Taxation with Representation of
30

Washington, 461 U.S. 540, 548 (1983)). So long as speaker distinctions “are
not a subtle means of exercising a content preference,” they “are not
6
presumed invalid under the First Amendment.” Id. at 645. Nor do the rules
challenged in this case “restrict the speech of some elements of our society in
order to advance the relative voice of others.” TWC Br. 43 (quoting Buckley
v. Valeo, 424 U.S. 1, 48-49 (1976)). The rules are designed to prevent
anticompetitive conduct.
In sum, strict scrutiny is inapplicable because the program carriage
rules do not reflect any preference for (or aversion to) any particular content.
The purpose of the rules has nothing to do with programming content. For
that reason, intermediate scrutiny applies.

6 Citizens United v. FEC, 130 S. Ct. 876 (2010), did not hold otherwise.
The Court there observed that, “apart from the purpose or effect of regulating
content, … the Government may commit a constitutional wrong when by law
it identifies certain preferred speakers.” Id. at 899 (emphasis added).
Petitioners misconstrue that statement to mean that all “speaker-based
restrictions infringe the First Amendment even when they are not content-
based.” NCTA Br. 51 n.12; see also TW Br. 28. The Court said no such
thing. Nor did it purport to alter settled law by declaring that all speaker-
based laws are subject to strict scrutiny. The Court applied strict scrutiny in
Citizens United because that case (unlike this one) concerned a law—
equivalent to a prior restraint—that burdened “speech uttered during a
campaign for political office.” 130 S. Ct. at 896, 898 (citation omitted).
31

B. The Rules Satisfy Intermediate Scrutiny.

A content-neutral regulation will withstand intermediate scrutiny if it:
(1) “advances important governmental interests unrelated to the suppression
of free speech”; and (2) “does not burden substantially more speech than
necessary to further those interests.” Turner II, 520 U.S. at 189 (citing
United States v. O’Brien, 391 U.S. 367, 377 (1968)).
The program carriage rules satisfy both parts of this test. They
promote competition and diversity of programming sources in the video
programming market—two substantial government interests. Order ¶ 32
(JA____). And they “burden no more speech than necessary” to advance
those interests. Order ¶ 34 (JA____).
1. The Rules Advance Substantial Government Interests.
By “promoting fair treatment of unaffiliated programming vendors,”
the program carriage rules foster “competition in the video programming
market” and “diversity” in the available sources of video programming.
Order ¶ 32 (JA____). These policy goals are “important governmental
objectives unrelated to the suppression of speech.” Time Warner, 93 F.3d at
969. In 2009, this Court relied on the same policy goals to uphold an FCC
order against First Amendment challenge, noting that it had “no trouble in
concluding that the order ‘advances important governmental interests
32

unrelated to the suppression of free speech.’” Cablevision, 570 F.3d at 97
(citation omitted).
The “Government’s interest in eliminating restraints on fair
competition is always substantial, even when the individuals or entities
subject to particular regulations are engaged in expressive activity protected
by the First Amendment.” Turner I, 512 U.S. at 664. And “assuring that the
public has access to a multiplicity of information sources is a governmental
purpose of the highest order, for it promotes values central to the First
Amendment.” Id. at 663. Indeed, “the First Amendment stems from the
premise that ‘the widest possible dissemination of information from diverse
and antagonistic sources is essential to the welfare of the public.’” Mt.
Mansfield Television, Inc. v. FCC, 442 F.2d 470, 477 (2d Cir. 1971) (quoting
Associated Press v. United States, 326 U.S. 1, 20 (1945)).
Petitioners do not dispute that the government has a substantial interest
in promoting competition and diversity in the video programming and
distribution markets. They maintain, however, that the program carriage
statute and implementing rules are no longer needed to achieve those ends
because “the marketplace is now vigorously competitive.” TWC Br. 16.
Petitioners assert that the FCC cannot continue to justify regulation without
evidence that cable operators retain a “bottleneck” monopoly (i.e., gatekeeper
33

control over distribution of video programming) in the MVPD market. TWC
Br. 36-37, 54; NCTA Br. 56-57.
This argument rests on the mistaken assumption that Congress adopted
the program carriage statute solely to restrain the “bottleneck” power that
cable operators possessed in 1992. NCTA Br. 55-56. If that were so,
Congress presumably would have limited the statute’s application to cable
operators (just as it did with the must-carry statute). Unlike the must-carry
statute, however, Section 616 applies to all MVPDs—including non-cable
MVPDs like DIRECTV, which have never held a bottleneck monopoly. 47
U.S.C. § 536(a).
The principal factor motivating Congress to regulate program carriage
was not the cable “bottleneck,” but the potential for affiliation-based
discrimination created by vertical integration. Congress found that “[a]s a
result” of vertical integration, “cable operators have the incentive and ability
7
to favor their affiliated programmers.” 1992 Cable Act, § 2(a)(5). As the
D.C. Circuit has explained, the “vertically integrated programmer provisions”
of the 1992 Cable Act were justified by “both ‘the bottleneck monopoly

7 See also Senate Report at 25 (“vertical integration gives cable operators
the incentive and ability to favor their affiliated programming services”);
House Report at 41 (“vertically integrated companies reduce diversity in
programming by threatening the viability of rival cable programming
services”).
34

power exercised by cable operators’ and the unique power that vertically
integrated companies have in the cable market.” Time Warner, 93 F.3d at
8
978 (citations omitted; emphasis added).
Two recent decisions of the D.C. Circuit confirm that vertically
integrated companies continue to retain such unique power and that the FCC
has good reason to remain wary of the prospect of anticompetitive conduct by
vertically integrated MVPDs. Specifically, the court found that “the
transformation in the MVPD market” since 1992, “although significant,
presents a ‘mixed picture’ when considered as a whole.” Cablevision, 649
F.3d at 712 (quoting Cablevision, 597 F.3d at 1314).
As the D.C. Circuit observed, “[w]hile cable no longer controls 95
percent of the MVPD market, as it did in 1992, cable still controls two thirds
of the market nationally,” Cablevision, 597 F.3d at 1314; and cable “enjoy[s]
[even] higher shares in several markets.” Cablevision, 649 F.3d at 712. In
addition, “as of 2007, ‘the four largest cable operators [were] still vertically

8 In adopting Section 616, Congress was motivated by concerns that some
local markets could be more vulnerable than others to the anticompetitive
effects of vertical integration because “the extent of market power in the
cable industry varies in each locality.” Senate Report at 24. For example, a
large vertically integrated MVPD like Comcast could have a much larger
market share in some metropolitan markets than in others. Given the local
variations in market conditions, Congress was concerned that a vertically
integrated MVPD “in certain instances” could “abuse its locally-derived
market power” to discriminate against unaffiliated programmers. Id.
35

integrated with six of the top 20 national networks, some of the most popular
premium networks, and almost half of all regional sports networks.’”
Cablevision, 649 F.3d at 712 (quoting Cablevision, 597 F.3d at 1314). In
view of this evidence, the D.C. Circuit found “no reason to question” recent
FCC findings that “cable operators still have a dominant share of MVPD
subscribers … and still own significant programming.” Cablevision, 649
F.3d at 712 (citation omitted).
Petitioners urge the Court to disregard the D.C. Circuit’s Cablevision
decisions because they involved program access rules rather than program
carriage rules. TWC Br. 38-39. But the findings in those cases confirmed the
continuing need for both program access and program carriage rules. As the
Commission explained (Order n.100 (JA___)), both regulatory regimes are
animated by the same concerns about competition and the threat posed by
vertical integration. Compare Cablevision, 597 F.3d at 1308 (program
access), with 1992 Cable Act, § 2(a)(5) (program carriage).
Even under petitioners’ conception of the statutory scheme (including
their contention that a showing of “market power” should be required as part
of a prima facie case of program carriage discrimination), petitioners’ facial
challenge fails. To survive that facial challenge, the Commission need not
“establish that vertically integrated cable companies retain a stranglehold
36

nationally.” Cablevision, 649 F.3d at 712. And the D.C. Circuit observed
only last year that “clustering and consolidation” of cable systems have
“bolster[ed] the market power of cable operators,” leaving some local
markets “‘highly susceptible to near-monopoly control by a cable company.’”
Id. (quoting Cablevision, 597 F.3d at 1309).
Likewise, in the Order, the Commission found that cable continues to
dominate some MVPD markets. In particular, it found that the recent merger
of Comcast (the largest MVPD in the nation) with media conglomerate NBC
Universal “highlight[ed] the continued need for an effective program carriage
complaint regime.” Order ¶ 33 (JA ____). That merger produced “an entity
with increased ability and incentive to harm competition in video
programming by engaging in … discriminatory actions against unaffiliated
video programming networks.” Id. (quoting Applications of Comcast Corp.,
Gen. Elec. Co. and NBC Universal, Inc., 26 FCC Rcd 4238, 4284 ¶ 116
(2011) (“Comcast/NBCU Order”)). Before approving the merger, the
Commission expressed concern that Comcast’s exceptionally large market
share in major metropolitan markets (e.g., “as much as 62 percent in the
Chicago [market] and 67 percent in the Philadelphia [market]”) would
enhance Comcast’s ability to “disadvantage rival networks that compete with
NBCU networks.” Comcast/NBCU Order, 26 FCC Rcd at 4285 ¶ 116. “The
37

Commission specifically relied upon the program carriage complaint process
to address these concerns.” Order ¶ 33 (JA____) (citing Comcast/NBCU
Order, 26 FCC Rcd at 4288 ¶ 123). The Order’s discussion of the 2011
merger refutes petitioners’ claim that the Commission relied “solely on
congressional findings from 1992” to justify the continued enforcement of the
program carriage rules. TWC Br. 34.
In light of the Comcast-NBC Universal merger, the Commission
reasonably found that vertically integrated MVPDs still retain “the incentive
and ability to favor their affiliated programming vendors in individual cases,
with the potential to unreasonably restrain the ability of an unaffiliated
programming vendor to compete fairly.” Order ¶ 33 (JA____-____). That
potential remains even if no “bottleneck” exists. Therefore, the Court should
reject petitioners’ premise that only the existence of “bottleneck” power can
9
justify program carriage regulation. The Commission in the Order properly
concluded that a case-by-case evaluation of program carriage complaints

9 Insofar as that flawed premise underlies most of petitioners’ constitutional
and APA challenges to the carriage discrimination rule and the FCC’s
procedures for establishing a prima facie case and obtaining standstill relief,
those challenges are unavailing. See TWC Br. 36, 47-56; NCTA Br. 55-57.
38

remains necessary to guard against individual instances of anticompetitive
10
conduct. See Order ¶ 33 (JA____).
Petitioners next contend that the program carriage rules are no longer
needed to promote diversity because the number of national programming
networks has grown and the percentage of vertically integrated networks has
declined since 1992. TWC Br. 40-41. Recently, however, the D.C. Circuit
found evidence that “despite major gains in the amount and diversity of
programming,” vertical integration still pervades the programming market.
Cablevision, 649 F.3d at 712. Moreover, “the number of cable-affiliated
networks recently increased significantly” when Comcast merged with NBC
Universal. Order ¶ 33 (JA____). Given the continuing presence of vertical
integration in the MVPD market, the program carriage rules remain necessary

10 For that reason, petitioners’ reliance on Time Warner Entertainment Co.
v. FCC, 240 F.3d 1126 (D.C. Cir. 2001), and Comcast Corp. v. FCC, 579
F.3d 1 (D.C. Cir. 2009), is misplaced. Those cases involved a different type
of rule—a categorical rule under which the FCC limited “individual cable
operators to a maximum percentage [i.e., 30 percent] of subscribers
nationwide.” Order ¶ 33 (JA____). The D.C. Circuit concluded in 2009 that
the development of competition among MVPDs obviated the need for a
national cable subscriber cap of 30 percent. Comcast, 579 F.3d at 8. Two
years later, however, the same court found that the national trend toward
greater MVPD competition did not foreclose the possibility of individual
cases of anticompetitive conduct by vertically integrated MVPDs.
Cablevision, 649 F.3d at 712. The program carriage complaint process—
which “requires an assessment of the facts of each case and the impact on the
ability of an unaffiliated programming vendor to compete fairly,” Order ¶ 33
(JA___)—is specifically tailored to address such cases.
39

to address complaints that raise legitimate concerns about competition and
diversity.
Petitioners suggest that the growth of the Internet and online video
diminish the need for the government to promote programming diversity.
TWC Br. 12-14. At this point, however, online video does not provide
programmers with a commercially viable alternative to MVPD carriage.
While “the amount of online viewing is growing,” market studies indicate
that “most consumers today do not see [online video] service as a substitute
for their MVPD service.” Comcast/NBCU Order, 26 FCC Rcd at 4269 ¶ 79.
A 2010 study commissioned by Nielsen showed that “only three percent of
people who watch video from the Internet on their television sets plann[ed] to
drop cable subscriptions.” Comcast/NBCU Order, 26 FCC Rcd at 4269
n.173.
Equally flawed is petitioners’ attack on the agency’s reliance on
diversity of voices as an interest furthered by the program carriage rules.
Petitioners contend that it was “nonsensical” to rely on that objective because
the Commission employs a “similarly situated” analysis in a subset of
program carriage cases, and this can only result in carriage of similar—rather
than diverse—programming. TWC Br. 41. That contention misses the point
that diversity in this context refers to diversity of sources of information. See
40

Order ¶ 32 & n.127 (JA____); Time Warner, 93 F.3d at 969. Far from
suggesting that this objective infringes free speech interests, the Supreme
Court has emphasized that ensuring public access to “a multiplicity of
information sources … promotes values central to the First Amendment.”
Turner I, 512 U.S. at 663 (emphasis added).
2. The Rules Do Not Burden Substantially More Speech

Than Necessary To Achieve Their Objectives.

To survive intermediate scrutiny, “a regulation need not be the least
speech-restrictive means of advancing the Government’s interests.” Turner I,
512 U.S. at 662. A content-neutral regulation will be sustained if it does not
“burden substantially more speech than is necessary to further the
government’s legitimate interests.” Id. (quoting Ward, 491 U.S. at 799).
a. The Carriage Discrimination Rule and Standstill

Procedure.

The carriage discrimination rule easily satisfies this requirement. The
Commission will find a violation of the rule “only after” the complainant
“proves” that a violation has occurred. Order ¶ 34 (JA____); see also TCR
Sports Broad. Holding v. Time Warner Cable Inc., 25 FCC Rcd 18099, 18105
¶ 10 (2010) (denying program carriage complaint because TWC had
“provided evidence establishing legitimate and non-discriminatory reasons”
for its carriage decision), aff’d, TCR Sports Broad. Holding v. FCC, 2012 WL
41

1672264 (4th Cir. May 14, 2012). Thus, “the burden imposed by” the rule “is
congruent to the benefits it affords.” Turner II, 520 U.S. at 215. The rule
“burden[s] no more speech than necessary” to achieve the government’s
objectives of protecting competition and promoting diversity. Order ¶ 34
(JA____).
There is no basis for petitioners’ assertion that “the program carriage
regime applies a one-size-fits-all approach” to “all adverse carriage decisions
rendered by MVPDs anywhere.” TWC Br. 43. To the contrary, rather than
prohibiting vertical integration altogether, Congress enacted a closely drawn
statute “[t]o ensure that cable operators do not favor their affiliated
programmers over others.” Senate Report at 27. The program carriage
statute (like the corresponding FCC rule) is structured to prohibit
discrimination on the basis of affiliation only when such discrimination has
the effect of “unreasonably restrain[ing] the ability of an unaffiliated video
programming vendor to compete fairly.” 47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(3); see also 47
C.F.R. § 76.1301(c). Accordingly, by their terms, the statute and FCC rule
apply only where an anticompetitive impact is shown in a particular case. Cf.
Cablevision, 649 F.3d at 711-12 (“[b]y imposing liability [under the program
access rules] only when complainants demonstrate that a company’s unfair
act has ‘the purpose or effect’ of ‘hinder[ing] significantly … or prevent[ing]’
42

the provision of satellite programming, the Commission’s … rules
specifically target activities where the government interest is greatest”). By
considering each program carriage complaint “on a case-by-case basis,”
examining the particular facts underlying each complaint, see Order ¶ 33
(JA____), the FCC ensures that its rules are narrowly tailored to burden no
11
more speech than necessary.
For similar reasons, petitioners are wrong in asserting that the
derivative standstill procedure “imposes a greater burden on speech than
necessary because it authorizes the FCC to compel speech before any
program-carriage violation has been found.” NCTA Br. 58. The FCC’s
procedure is no more constitutionally infirm than the courts’ practice of
granting preliminary injunctive relief in appropriate cases, even though such
relief implicates a party’s First Amendment rights. See, e.g., Merkos
L’Inyonei Chinuch, Inc. v. Otsar Sifrei Lubavitch, Inc., 312 F.3d 94 (2d Cir.

11 Petitioners’ supposition (TWC Br. 44) that the FCC could have selected
“other regulatory options that would impose fewer burdens on MVPDs’ First
Amendment rights” is beside the point. Because the FCC’s rules (like the
underlying statute) are “not substantially broader than necessary to achieve
the government’s interest,” Turner II, 520 U.S. at 218, they are constitutional.
A content-neutral regulation “will not be invalid simply because … the
government’s interest could be adequately served by some less-speech-
restrictive alternative.” Id. (citation omitted).
43

2002) (affirming grant of preliminary injunction enjoining dissemination of
prayerbook that likely infringed plaintiff’s copyright).
To obtain a standstill, a complainant must show not only that it will
suffer irreparable harm absent a stay of the existing contract’s terms, but also
that it is likely to prevail on the merits. Order ¶ 27 (JA___). That, in turn,
requires a showing—supported by evidence—that the complainant will likely
prevail in establishing (a) affiliation-based discrimination, and (b) an
unreasonable restraint of a programming vendor’s ability to fairly compete.
47 C.F.R. § 76.1301(c). Thus, the standstill remedy is narrowly tailored like
the underlying rule itself. Furthermore, one of the prerequisites to obtaining
standstill relief—under the same standard that courts apply in considering
stays—is that parties other than the complainant will not be substantially
harmed. Order ¶ 27 (JA____). That requirement will fully accommodate
petitioners’ speech interests as standstill requests are considered on a case-by-
case basis.
In sum, it was reasonable for the Commission to conclude that the
standstill rule, on its face, does not burden substantially more speech than
necessary to achieve its objectives. See Washington State Grange, 552 U.S.
at 449-50 (in assessing a facial First Amendment challenge, courts “must be
careful not to go beyond the [rules’] facial requirements and speculate about
44

‘hypothetical’ or ‘imaginary’ cases”). To the extent petitioners believe that
issuance of a standstill order in a particular case would insufficiently
accommodate First Amendment values, they are free to assert that argument
in opposing standstill relief in that case. Cf. Cablevision, 649 F.3d at 713
(rejecting as unripe an “as-applied preenforcement challenge” under the First
Amendment, but recognizing that cable operator could assert as-applied
12
arguments in particular cases).
b. The Prima Facie Rule.
Petitioners argue that the FCC’s rule requiring complainants to
establish a prima facie case of program carriage discrimination is not
narrowly tailored because it does not require a showing of “market power.”
TWC Br. 47-51. Petitioners are “barred from raising this point on appeal”
because no party presented this argument to the Commission. Capital Tel.

12 In a reprise of one of their principal themes, petitioners contend that the
standstill procedure is not narrowly tailored because it does not require a
showing of bottleneck market power. TWC Br. 53-54. As shown in Part
I.B.1 above, however, a finding of bottleneck power is not necessary to
establish a violation of Section 616. The sort of anticompetitive conduct that
the statute prohibits can occur whether or not a “bottleneck” exists.
45

13
Co. v. FCC, 777 F.2d 868, 871 (2d Cir. 1985) (citing 47 U.S.C. § 405). In
any event, petitioners’ argument lacks merit.
Petitioners cannot plausibly claim that the prima facie rule imposes any
burden on MVPDs’ speech, much less that it “encourages” the filing of
complaints. TWC Br. 22. That rule benefits cable operators. It establishes
procedures that allow a cable operator or other MVPD defendant to seek
dismissal of a program carriage complaint for failure to state a claim. Order
¶ 16 (JA____-____).
Far from “chilling … speech” by “permit[ting] baseless program
carriage complaints” to proceed (TWC Br. 45), the requirement that
complainants establish a prima facie case of program carriage
discrimination—supported by evidence—is carefully crafted “to ensure that
only legitimate complaints proceed to further evidentiary proceedings.”
Order ¶ 10 (JA____). In any event, petitioners have produced no proof that
the prima facie rule (or, for that matter, any of the other program carriage
rules) has actually “chilled” any MVPD’s speech. Petitioners cannot sustain

13 See also Adelphia Commc’ns Corp. v. FCC, 88 F.3d 1250, 1255-56 (D.C.
Cir. 1996) (exhaustion requirement under 47 U.S.C. § 405 applies to
constitutional claims). For the same reason, petitioners failed to preserve for
appellate review their claim that the “FCC’s refusal to require a showing of
bottleneck control” under the prima facie rule is “arbitrary and capricious.”
TWC Br. 51.
46

a First Amendment claim—much less a facial claim—based on hypothetical
14
“chilling” allegations.
Petitioners likewise fail to substantiate their claim that a “market
power” showing is needed to make a prima facie case. The program carriage
statute itself makes no reference to “market power.” See 47 U.S.C. § 536.
And the statute’s legislative history makes clear that Section 616 “does not
amend existing antitrust laws,” but instead “provides new FCC remedies” that
differ from traditional antitrust remedies. Senate Report at 29. Nor would it
make sense for Congress to have enacted a new statute to protect against the
anticompetitive effects of vertical integration if that statute simply replicated
the antitrust laws.
Instead of requiring a “market power” showing at the prima facie
stage, the FCC required a carriage discrimination complaint to “contain
evidence that the defendant MVPD’s conduct has the effect of unreasonably
restraining the ability of the complaining programming vendor to compete
fairly.” Order ¶ 15 (JA____). That requirement is consistent with the terms
of Section 616. See 47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(3).

14 See, e.g., Williams v. Town of Greenburgh, 535 F.3d 71, 78 (2d Cir.
2008) (plaintiff’s First Amendment claim failed “as a matter of law” because
he produced no evidence “that his speech was either silenced or chilled”).
47

Petitioners assert that the FCC, in construing this requirement, has
treated “adverse carriage action of any kind as an unreasonable restraint.”
TWC Br. 50. They base that claim on two orders in which the FCC’s Media
15
Bureau designated carriage discrimination complaints for hearing.
Even if petitioners had fairly characterized those Media Bureau orders,
the Commission “is not bound by the actions of its staff if the agency has not
endorsed those actions,” Comcast Corp. v. FCC, 526 F.3d 763, 769 (D.C. Cir.
2008), and the agency has never endorsed the proposition that all adverse
carriage decisions “unreasonably” restrain programmers’ ability to compete
fairly.
Nor has the Media Bureau ever taken that position. Rather, in the
orders cited by petitioners, the Bureau found specific evidence that the
challenged carriage decisions had unreasonably restrained an unaffiliated
programmer’s ability to compete. As the Bureau’s analysis in those cases
reflected, a carriage decision constitutes an “unreasonable” restraint only if it
has a material effect on an unaffiliated programmer’s ability to compete. For
example, the Bureau found evidence that Comcast’s “refusal to expand [t]he
Tennis Channel’s distribution” was “particularly detrimental to the network”

15 See Tennis Channel, Inc. v. Comcast Cable Commc’ns, LLC, 25 FCC
Rcd 14149 (Med. Bur. 2010); Herring Broad., Inc. v. Time Warner Cable
Inc.
, 23 FCC Rcd 14787 (Med. Bur. 2008).
48

because “Comcast is the dominant cable operator in seven of the ten largest
television markets.” Tennis Channel, 25 FCC Rcd at 14161 ¶ 20; see also
Herring, 23 FCC Rcd at 14798 ¶ 19 (finding that “TWC has ‘quasi
monopolies’ in key markets”—including New York and Los Angeles—“that
are essential to WealthTV’s long-term viability”).

II.

THE COMMISSION PROPERLY CONCLUDED THAT IT
HAS AUTHORITY TO ISSUE PROGRAM CARRIAGE
STANDSTILL ORDERS GOVERNING CABLE
OPERATORS

Although petitioners do not dispute that the FCC has statutory
authority to order carriage at the conclusion of program carriage proceedings,
they maintain that the Communications Act bars the agency from granting
interim relief that preserves the status quo while a carriage complaint is
pending against a cable operator. TWC Br. 21-34. That argument is
meritless.
Like courts, administrative agencies may grant interim relief in
appropriate cases to preserve the status quo before addressing the merits of a
proceeding. The FCC is no exception. In a variety of contexts, it has
exercised its authority to grant “interim injunctive relief, in the form of a
standstill order,” under Section 4(i) of the Communications Act. See Order
¶ 26 (JA____). Section 4(i) empowers the Commission to “make such rules
and regulations, … not inconsistent with this [Act], as may be necessary in
49

the execution of its functions.” 47 U.S.C. § 154(i). In this proceeding, the
Commission also relied on its authority to issue interim relief in the program
carriage context under Section 616 of the Act. That provision “expressly
directs the Commission to ‘establish regulations governing program carriage
agreements and related practices.’” Order n.107 (JA____) (quoting 47
U.S.C. § 536(a)).
Petitioners base their challenge to the FCC’s standstill authority on
Section 624(f)(1) of the Act, which prohibits government authorities
(including the Commission) from imposing “requirements regarding the
provision or content of cable services, except as expressly provided in [Title
VI of the Act].” 47 U.S.C. § 544(f)(1). Petitioners contend that Section
624(f)(1) bars the FCC from issuing program carriage standstill orders
governing cable operators because Title VI does not expressly authorize such
orders. NCTA Br. 21-34. Before the FCC, however, TWC not only failed to
oppose standstill relief but affirmatively suggested that the FCC may issue
such relief in cases where the traditional four-part test for granting stays is
50

16
satisfied—the very standard the agency has adopted. Petitioners’ position
on appeal—that Section 624(f)(1) unambiguously precludes the FCC from
awarding interim injunctive relief in appropriate cases—is at odds with the
text and purposes of Section 616, and should be rejected.
In particular, Section 624(f)(1) is not violated here because, as the
Commission explained (Order n.107 (JA____)), Section 616(a)—a provision
of Title VI—expressly directs the Commission to “establish regulations
governing program carriage agreements and related practices.” 47 U.S.C.
§ 536(a). Given that Section 624(f)(1) excludes from its reach requirements
“expressly provided in [Title VI],” the language of Section 616(a) by itself
refutes petitioners’ argument.
Indeed, Section 616(a)’s specific directives regarding the content of the
FCC’s regulations confirm that the Commission is authorized to issue
standstill orders. Sections 616(a)(1) and (3) expressly direct the FCC to

16 See Letter from Arthur Harding, Counsel for TWC, to Marlene Dortch,
Secretary, FCC, at 2 (filed June 1, 2011) (JA____) (“An MVPD should
remain free to exercise its contractual rights to drop or reposition a
programmer who has filed a program carriage complaint unless the
Commission determines that the traditional factors for granting a stay are
satisfied
.”) (emphasis added). TWC’s newfound objections to the standstill
procedure are particularly puzzling given that the company previously agreed
to be bound by a similar standstill condition in conjunction with the FCC’s
approval of TWC’s acquisition of cable systems formerly owned by
Adelphia. See Adelphia Commc’ns Corp., 21 FCC Rcd 8203, 8337 (2006)
(Appendix B, § 2(c)) (cited in Order n.116 (JA____)).
51

establish rules that “include provisions designed to prevent” cable operators
or other MVPDs from, inter alia, discriminating on the basis of affiliation.
47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(1), (3) (emphasis added). Similarly, Section 616(a)(2)
expressly directs the FCC to establish rules that “include provisions designed
to prohibit” cable operators or other MVPDs from coercing a programmer to
provide exclusive rights as a condition of carriage (or retaliating against a
programmer that refuses to do so). 47 U.S.C. § 536(a)(2) (emphasis added).
The standstill procedure falls squarely within the express grant of
rulemaking authority under the first three subsections of Section 616(a).
Consistent with the terms of those provisions, the standstill procedure is
“designed to prevent” or “prohibit” cable operators or other MVPDs from
taking actions that the statute forbids. If a program carriage complainant can
show that it will likely prevail on the merits and will suffer irreparable harm
absent an order preserving the status quo (i.e., two of the four prerequisites
for obtaining such relief), issuance of such an order is necessarily designed to
prevent any ongoing conduct that likely violates the statute—conduct that
otherwise might persist for the duration of the proceeding, which may take
many months to resolve. It is no answer that the defendant ultimately may
prevail (notwithstanding the complainant’s prior showing of likelihood of
52

success on the merits); that is a risk attendant to any form of preliminary
injunctive relief.
As the Commission explained, one way in which the standstill
provision is designed to prevent or prohibit MVPDs from taking actions in
violation of the substantive antidiscrimination provision is by discouraging
retaliation for the filing of program carriage complaints. See Order ¶ 25
(JA___). Preventing retaliatory conduct itself furthers the goals of the
underlying antidiscrimination rule. Cf. Tepperwien v. Entergy Nuclear
Operations, Inc., 663 F.3d 556, 567 (2d Cir. 2011) (“‘by preventing an
employer from interfering (through retaliation) with an employee’s efforts to
secure or advance enforcement of [Title VII]’s basic guarantees,’” anti-
retaliation provision furthers statute’s substantive goal of prohibiting
discrimination) (citation omitted).
Petitioners repeatedly contend that the standstill procedure cannot
protect against retaliation because there may be situations where an MVPD’s
decision not to carry a network itself precipitates a complaint and request for
standstill relief, so that no further retaliation is possible. NCTA Br. 29-30,
45, 58. Petitioners, however, overlook other situations. For example, an
MVPD may propose that, upon expiration of a carriage contract, it will
continue carriage of an unaffiliated network, but only on new terms that are
53

less favorable than those the MVPD affords to its own affiliated networks
(such as carriage on a programming tier with a limited subscriber base). In
that scenario, the unaffiliated network’s filing of a program carriage
complaint may cause the MVPD to retaliate by taking a more severe
discriminatory action—including dropping the complaining network
altogether. A remedy that prevents such retaliation is designed to prevent a
17
violation of the substantive rule.
In any event, petitioners are incorrect in assuming (NCTA Br. 29) that
the Commission’s sole rationale for standstill relief was to prevent retaliation.
As the agency explained, “absent a standstill, programming vendors may feel
compelled to agree to the carriage demands of MVPDs, even if these
demands violate the program carriage rules, in order to maintain carriage of
video programming in which they have made substantial investments.”
Order ¶ 25 (JA____) (citing submissions from unaffiliated networks).
Indeed, without interim relief, the ultimate relief awarded (in the form of a
carriage order) could be worthless if time-sensitive programming (such as

17 The Commission left open the possibility that Section 624(f)(1) might bar
the issuance of program carriage standstill orders “in some circumstances.”
Order n.107 (JA____). It asked for further comment on that issue. Order
¶ 60 (JA____). Even assuming that standstill orders might be prohibited in
some cases, petitioners cannot prevail on their facial challenge to the
standstill rule unless they show that Section 624(f)(1) bans standstills in all
cases involving cable operators. They have failed to make that showing.
54

seasonal sports programming) is involved; by the time a program carriage
proceeding has concluded, the damage already may have been done.
The entry of a stay pending further review is a traditional means of
preventing potentially unlawful conduct while a dispute is resolved. Just as
judicial stays are designed “to prevent irreparable injury so as to preserve the
18
court’s ability to render a meaningful decision on the merits,” program
carriage standstill orders are designed to prevent irreparable injury in order to
preserve the FCC’s ability to respond effectively to carriage complaints.
Finally, petitioners’ reading of the statute is not only contrary to the
text and remedial purposes of Section 616; it also makes little sense as a
practical matter. Even under petitioners’ reading of the statute, standstill
orders would not be precluded in all program carriage cases. By its terms,
Section 624(f)(1) does not apply to non-cable MVPD services. It refers only
to “requirements regarding the provision or content of cable services.” 47
U.S.C. § 544(f)(1) (emphasis added). Under petitioners’ proposed
interpretation, Section 624(f)(1) would bar the FCC from issuing standstill
orders governing cable operators, but the agency would remain free to issue

18 WarnerVision Entm’t, Inc. v. Empire of Carolina, Inc., 101 F.3d 259, 261
(2d Cir. 1996) (internal quotation marks omitted)
55

19
such orders against other MVPDs, such as satellite television providers.
Thus, as petitioners construe the statute, the Commission could issue
standstill orders to prevent misconduct by DIRECTV or DISH Network, but
it would be powerless to order standstills to stop misconduct by TWC or
Comcast (the largest MVPD in the nation). It is highly unlikely that
Congress intended to create such an anomalous regulatory regime.

III. THE COMMISSION COMPLIED WITH THE APA WHEN

IT CODIFIED ITS STANDSTILL PROCEDURE

Petitioners argue that the Commission’s codification of its procedure
for granting standstill relief was “arbitrary and capricious” (NCTA Br. 40-
47), and that the Commission failed to satisfy the APA’s notice requirements
before codifying that procedure (TWC Br. 56-60; NCTA Br. 34-39). Neither
contention has merit.

A. The Commission Acted Well Within Its Discretion In

Codifying Its Standstill Procedure.

Petitioners maintain that the Commission abused its discretion in
codifying its standstill procedure because the “costs” of the standstill rule

19 Apart from the Commission’s direct authority to grant standstills
pursuant to the express mandate of Section 616, it is undisputed that the
Commission has authority to impose standstills on non-cable MVPDs under
Section 4(i) of the Communications Act, 47 U.S.C. § 154(i). See Order ¶ 26
(JA____-____).
56

supposedly exceed its “benefits.” NCTA Br. 40-47. This argument,
however, overlooks the case-by-case nature of standstill relief.
In evaluating standstill requests, the Commission follows the same
approach that courts use when considering stay motions. The Commission
specifically assesses, inter alia, whether “grant of a stay will … substantially
harm other interested parties” and whether “the public interest favors grant of
a stay.” Order ¶ 27 (JA___-___). Thus, the costs of granting standstill relief
in any particular case will be fully considered and weighed against the
benefits in the context of case-by-case adjudication. Indeed, NCTA
“[r]ecogniz[es] the highly fact-intensive nature of program-carriage disputes.”
NCTA Br. 41. In appropriate cases, standstill relief will be denied.
While petitioners speculate that “erroneous standstills” may be granted
(NCTA Br. 42), the FCC’s standard for granting such relief is the same one
that TWC itself proposed. See n. 16 supra. A complainant cannot obtain a
standstill unless it meets the stringent four-part test for preliminary injunctive
relief. And, as the Commission emphasized, “‘injunctive relief [is] an
extraordinary remedy that may only be awarded upon a clear showing that the
[complainant] is entitled to such relief.’” Order n.110 (JA___) (quoting
Winter, 555 U.S. at 21). The risk of erroneous standstill orders is therefore
speculative at best.
57

Petitioners assert that the Commission will be unable “to provide
meaningful relief to an MVPD” in the event of an erroneous standstill order.
NCTA Br. 41. In particular, they contend that the availability of interim
relief is unduly burdensome because interlocutory review will not be
available “to police and deter erroneous standstills.” NCTA Br. 42. That is
incorrect. Nothing prevents a disappointed cable operator against whom
standstill relief is granted from seeking a stay of such relief from the full
Commission. See 47 C.F.R. §§ 1.43-1.45 (stay procedures), 1.298 (allowing
interlocutory relief in cases before ALJ); see also Tennis Channel, Inc. v.
Comcast Cable Commc’ns, LLC, FCC 12-50 (released May 14, 2012)
(staying an ALJ’s decision requiring Comcast to carry the Tennis Channel on
20
the same tier as Comcast’s affiliated sports networks). Additionally, an
MVPD that objects to a standstill order can always seek a judicial stay of the
order under the All Writs Act, 28 U.S.C. § 1651. See, e.g., Reynolds Metals
Co. v. FERC, 777 F.2d 760, 762 (D.C. Cir. 1985).

20 FCC Rule 76.10, cited by NCTA (Br. 42), is not to the contrary. That
provision bars a litigant from seeking “review” of an interlocutory order. See
47 C.F.R. § 76.10(a). Read in context, the provision refers to a request for
review on the merits in the form of an “application for review,” see id.
§ 76.10(a)(2). It does not state that a request for a stay of an interlocutory
order (as opposed to review on the merits) will not be entertained.
58

In the event that an MVPD ultimately prevailed after issuance of a
standstill order, the Commission explained that its staff could develop an
appropriate remedy for the MVPD “on a case-by-case basis.” Order ¶ 29
(JA____). The FCC’s resolution of a difficult remedial issue in an isolated
case might be an appropriate subject for an as-applied challenge to a future
Commission order. But at this point, petitioners’ conjecture about remedial
21
issues provides no basis for wholesale invalidation of the standstill rule.
Where a standstill is justified, the rule will yield significant benefits.
As shown above, a standstill may be “necessary to prevent the likely
occurrence of one of the practices expressly prohibited” by Section 616.
Order 25 & n.107 (JA____, ____); see also Part II, supra (discussing
retaliation and pressure on unaffiliated networks to agree to unlawful carriage
demands). While petitioners assert that the Commission had insufficient
evidence that standstill relief was needed (NCTA Br. 44-47), they do not
dispute that the FCC received submissions from unaffiliated networks

21 Equally unfounded is petitioners’ argument that standstill relief will
distort negotiations which, NCTA contends, “typically occur in the final days
or weeks of the existing contract.” NCTA Br. 43. Where issuance of
standstill relief is a realistic possibility, such negotiations simply will occur
earlier. Furthermore, the Commission explained that a standstill may be
vacated if the adjudicator “finds that the stay is having a negative effect on
settlement negotiations or is otherwise no longer in the public interest.”
Order ¶ 27 (JA___).
59

attesting to the risk of retaliation absent a standstill. Order n.101 (JA___).
And it is well settled that agencies can “adopt prophylactic rules to prevent
potential problems before they arise. An agency need not suffer the flood
before building the levee.” Stilwell v. Office of Thrift Supervision, 569 F.3d
514, 519 (D.C. Cir. 2009). The potential for anticompetitive conduct by
vertically integrated MVPDs justified the FCC’s codification of a
“prophylactic” standstill rule “regardless of whether there was clear evidence
of the existence of such evils.” Viacom Int’l Inc. v. FCC, 672 F.2d 1034,
1040 (2d Cir. 1982).

B. The Commission Complied With The APA’s Notice

Requirements.

Before an agency may adopt a rule, the APA generally requires that the
agency provide notice of “either the terms or substance of the proposed rule
or a description of the subjects and issues involved.” 5 U.S.C. § 553(b)(3).
This notice requirement, however, does not apply to “rules of agency
organization, procedure, or practice.” 5 U.S.C. § 553(b)(A). The
Commission correctly concluded that its codification of its existing standstill
procedure fell within this exception to the notice requirement. Order ¶ 36
(JA ____-____).
Courts have found several FCC rules to be purely procedural, including
the agency’s “hard look” rules under which it may summarily dismiss a
60

defective license application. As the court explained in JEM Broadcasting
Co. v. FCC, 22 F.3d 320, 327 (D.C. Cir. 1994), those rules were procedural
because they “did not change the substantive standards by which the FCC
evaluates license applications.” This Court applied the same analysis in
Notaro v. Luther, 800 F.2d 290 (2d Cir. 1986) (per curiam), where it held that
an “approach set out in [a] training aid” issued by a parole commission fell
within the exception to the APA’s notice requirement because the aid
“accord[ed] with the Commission’s regulations and past practices.” Id. at
291 (citing 5 U.S.C. § 553(b)(A)); see also Donovan v. Red Star Marine
Servs., Inc., 739 F.2d 774, 783 (2d Cir. 1984) (“rules that do not change
‘existing rights and obligations’” are exempt from APA notice). The FCC’s
codification of its longstanding procedure for granting standstills falls
squarely within this precedent.
The Commission has granted interim injunctive relief in a variety of
contexts. See Order n.104 (JA___) (citing examples). Even before the
Commission codified its program carriage standstill procedure, FCC rules
permitted parties to request “temporary relief” from the agency pending
resolution of a complaint against an MVPD. See, e.g., 47 C.F.R. §§ 1.45(d),
1.298(a), 76.7(e)(1). Such “temporary relief” plainly encompasses a
standstill order to preserve the status quo. Indeed, more than 40 years ago,
61

the Supreme Court upheld the FCC’s issuance of an order barring a cable
operator from expanding its service area while the agency reviewed a
complaint against the operator. United States v. Southwestern Cable Co., 392
U.S. 157, 178-81 (1968).
Petitioners urge the Court to disregard this precedent by asserting that
“[t]he FCC has identified no established practice of ordering such relief in
program-carriage cases.” NCTA Br. 35 (emphasis added). That frames the
relevant question too narrowly. Standstill relief, like any form of interim
injunctive relief, may be granted in a broad array of contexts. Thus, it does
not matter that the FCC has not granted such relief specifically in the program
carriage context any more than it would matter in determining whether a
court has authority to grant a stay that it had not previously granted such
relief in that particular category of cases. Nor is it surprising that the FCC
has not yet granted a standstill order in the program carriage context. At the
time the Order was adopted, only eleven program carriage complaints had
been filed since Congress enacted Section 616 in 1992. Order n.27
62

22
(JA____). And, as the Commission explained, standstill relief is an
23
extraordinary remedy rarely granted. See Order n.110 (JA___).
Petitioners further contend that the APA notice requirement applies to
the standstill rule because the rule affects “substantive rights.” TWC Br. 57.
Because the rule merely codifies an existing procedure, however, it does not
affect substantive rights any more than the pre-existing standstill procedure
did. Order n.149 (JA___). In any event, “all procedural rules affect
substantive rights to greater or lesser degree.” Lamoille Valley R.R. Co. v.
ICC, 711 F.2d 295, 328 (D.C. Cir. 1983); see also James V. Hurson Assocs.,
Inc. v. Glickman, 229 F.3d 277, 281 (D.C. Cir. 2000) (“an otherwise-
procedural rule does not become a substantive one, for notice-and-comment
purposes, simply because it imposes a burden on regulated parties”). Indeed,
the same could have been said of the FCC’s rules allowing the agency to
summarily dismiss defective license applications, yet that did not prevent the

22 Only one additional complaint has been filed since the Order was adopted.
23 Petitioners claim to find an inconsistency between the Commission’s
position that notice was not required here and its decision to seek comment
before adopting the program access standstill rule. NCTA Br. 36-37; TWC
Br. 59-60. There is no inconsistency. “Agencies are free to grant additional
procedural rights in the exercise of their discretion.” Vermont Yankee
Nuclear Power Corp. v. Natural Res. Def. Council
, 435 U.S. 519, 524 (1978).
That the agency previously chose to seek comment on standstill procedures in
the program access context does not mean that it was required by the APA to
seek comment again on such relief in the related program carriage context.
63

rules from being exempt from APA notice requirements. JEM, 22 F.3d at
326-28.
In any event, even if the Commission was required to provide notice of
the standstill rule, it provided sufficient notice to satisfy the APA. In the
NPRM, the FCC requested comment on whether it “should adopt additional
rules to protect programmers from potential retaliation if they file a
complaint.” NPRM ¶ 16 (JA____). The standstill rule was “a ‘logical
outgrowth’ of this proposal” because the rule “will help to prevent retaliation
while a program carriage complaint is pending.” Order ¶ 36 (JA____).
Therefore, the agency’s notice complied with the APA. See Long Island
Care at Home, Ltd. v. Coke, 551 U.S. 158, 174 (2007).
Petitioners fault the Commission for failing to propose any “specific”
rule concerning standstills. NCTA Br. 38. As this Court has recognized,
however, the APA “does not require an agency to publish in advance every
precise proposal which it may ultimately adopt as a rule.” Mt. Mansfield, 442
F.2d at 488. Indeed, the APA does not require a rulemaking notice to contain
any rule proposals. A notice will suffice if it contains “a description of the
subjects and issues involved.” 5 U.S.C. § 553(b)(3); see also National Black
Media Coal. v. FCC, 822 F.2d 277, 283 (2d Cir. 1987) (notice is adequate if
64

it “fairly apprise[s] interested persons of the subjects and issues” of the
rulemaking) (internal quotation marks omitted).
Because the APA “does not require a precise notice of each aspect of
the regulations eventually adopted,” an agency’s notice is adequate “so long
as it affords interested parties a reasonable opportunity to participate in the
rulemaking process.” State of New York Dep’t of Soc. Servs. v. Shalala, 21
F.3d 485, 495 (2d Cir. 1994) (internal quotation marks omitted). The notice
here met that requirement. It informed the public “of the issues covered” by
the rulemaking and “the purpose” of “any potential regulation.” Nuvio Corp.
v. FCC, 473 F.3d 302, 310 (D.C. Cir. 2006). In particular, the NPRM notified
interested parties that the FCC was considering the adoption of “rules to
protect programmers from potential retaliation if they file a complaint.”
NPRM ¶ 16 (JA____). That proposal led to the standstill rule. Order ¶ 36
(JA____).
Petitioners question the relationship between the standstill rule and the
prevention of retaliation. NCTA Br. 38; TWC Br. 58. As noted above,
however, it was entirely reasonable for the Commission to anticipate that, in
the absence of a standstill, an MVPD might respond to a program carriage
complaint by threatening to drop the complainant’s programming unless the
complainant withdrew its complaint and acceded to carriage demands that
65

violate Section 616. See Part II, supra. Because “such a possibility” was
“reasonably foreseeable,” Long Island Care at Home, 551 U.S. at 175, the
standstill rule was a “logical outgrowth” of the Commission’s proposal to
consider measures to prevent retaliation.

CONCLUSION

For the foregoing reasons, the Court should deny the petitions for
review.
Respectfully
submitted,
JOSEPH F. WAYLAND
SEAN A. LEV
ACTING ASSISTANT ATTORNEY
ACTING GENERAL COUNSEL
GENERAL


PETER KARANJIA
CATHERINE G. O’SULLIVAN
DEPUTY GENERAL COUNSEL
NANCY C. GARRISON

ATTORNEYS
JACOB M. LEWIS

ASSOCIATE GENERAL COUNSEL
UNITED STATES

DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE
/s/ James M. Carr
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20530


JAMES M. CARR
COUNSEL

FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS
COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20554
(202) 418-1762
June 26, 2012
66

IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS
FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT


TIME WARNER CABLE INC. AND NATIONAL
CABLE & TELECOMMUNICATIONS ASSOCIATION,
PETITIONERS,
NO. 11-4138
(CONSOLIDATED
v.
WITH NO. 11-
F
5152)
EDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION AND
U

NITED STATES OF AMERICA,
RESPONDENTS.



CERTIFICATE OF COMPLIANCE

Pursuant to the requirements of Fed. R. App. P. 32(a)(7), I hereby
certify that the accompanying Brief for Respondents in the captioned case
contains 13,914 words.

/s/ James M. Carr
James M. Carr

Counsel
Federal Communications Commission
Washington, D.C. 20554
(202) 418-1740 (Telephone)
(202) 418-2819 (Fax)
June 26, 2012






















STATUTORY APPENDIX












5 U.S.C. § 553

47 U.S.C. § 405
47 U.S.C. § 536
47 U.S.C. § 544

47 C.F.R. § 76.1300
47 C.F.R. § 76.1301
47 C.F.R. § 76.1302




5 U.S.C. § 553




UNITED STATES CODE ANNOTATED
TITLE 5. GOVERNMENT ORGANIZATION AND EMPLOYEES
PART I. THE AGENCIES GENERALLY
CHAPTER 5. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE
SUBCHAPTER II. ADMINISTRATIVE PROCEDURE


§ 553. Rule making


(a) This section applies, according to the provisions thereof, except to the
extent that there is involved--

(1) a military or foreign affairs function of the United States; or

(2) a matter relating to agency management or personnel or to public
property, loans, grants, benefits, or contracts.

(b) General notice of proposed rule making shall be published in the Federal
Register, unless persons subject thereto are named and either personally
served or otherwise have actual notice thereof in accordance with law. The
notice shall include--

(1) a statement of the time, place, and nature of public rule making
proceedings;

(2) reference to the legal authority under which the rule is proposed; and

(3) either the terms or substance of the proposed rule or a description of the
subjects and issues involved.

Except when notice or hearing is required by statute, this subsection does not
apply--

(A) to interpretative rules, general statements of policy, or rules of agency
organization, procedure, or practice; or


(B) when the agency for good cause finds (and incorporates the finding and
a brief statement of reasons therefor in the rules issued) that notice and
public procedure thereon are impracticable, unnecessary, or contrary to the
public interest.

(c) After notice required by this section, the agency shall give interested
persons an opportunity to participate in the rule making through submission
of written data, views, or arguments with or without opportunity for oral
presentation. After consideration of the relevant matter presented, the agency
shall incorporate in the rules adopted a concise general statement of their
basis and purpose. When rules are required by statute to be made on the
record after opportunity for an agency hearing, sections 556 and 557 of this
title apply instead of this subsection.

(d) The required publication or service of a substantive rule shall be made
not less than 30 days before its effective date, except--

(1) a substantive rule which grants or recognizes an exemption or relieves a
restriction;

(2) interpretative rules and statements of policy; or

(3) as otherwise provided by the agency for good cause found and
published with the rule.

(e) Each agency shall give an interested person the right to petition for the
issuance, amendment, or repeal of a rule.



47 U.S.C. § 405




UNITED STATES CODE ANNOTATED
TITLE 47. TELEGRAPHS, TELEPHONES, AND
RADIOTELEGRAPHS
CHAPTER 5. WIRE OR RADIO COMMUNICATION
SUBCHAPTER IV. PROCEDURAL AND ADMINISTRATIVE
PROVISIONS


§ 405. Petition for reconsideration; procedure; disposition; time of
filing; additional evidence; time for disposition of petition for
reconsideration of order concluding hearing or investigation; appeal of
order


(a) After an order, decision, report, or action has been made or taken in any
proceeding by the Commission, or by any designated authority within the
Commission pursuant to a delegation under section 155(c)(1) of this title,
any party thereto, or any other person aggrieved or whose interests are
adversely affected thereby, may petition for reconsideration only to the
authority making or taking the order, decision, report, or action; and it shall
be lawful for such authority, whether it be the Commission or other authority
designated under section 155(c)(1) of this title, in its discretion, to grant such
a reconsideration if sufficient reason therefor be made to appear. A petition
for reconsideration must be filed within thirty days from the date upon
which public notice is given of the order, decision, report, or action
complained of. No such application shall excuse any person from complying
with or obeying any order, decision, report, or action of the Commission, or
operate in any manner to stay or postpone the enforcement thereof, without
the special order of the Commission. The filing of a petition for
reconsideration shall not be a condition precedent to judicial review of any
such order, decision, report, or action, except where the party seeking such
review (1) was not a party to the proceedings resulting in such order,
decision, report, or action, or (2) relies on questions of fact or law upon
which the Commission, or designated authority within the Commission, has
been afforded no opportunity to pass. The Commission, or designated
authority within the Commission, shall enter an order, with a concise

statement of the reasons therefor, denying a petition for reconsideration or
granting such petition, in whole or in part, and ordering such further
proceedings as may be appropriate: Provided, That in any case where such
petition relates to an instrument of authorization granted without a hearing,
the Commission, or designated authority within the Commission, shall take
such action within ninety days of the filing of such petition.
Reconsiderations shall be governed by such general rules as the Commission
may establish, except that no evidence other than newly discovered
evidence, evidence which has become available only since the original
taking of evidence, or evidence which the Commission or designated
authority within the Commission believes should have been taken in the
original proceeding shall be taken on any reconsideration. The time within
which a petition for review must be filed in a proceeding to which section
402(a) of this title applies, or within which an appeal must be taken under
section 402(b) of this title in any case, shall be computed from the date upon
which the Commission gives public notice of the order, decision, report, or
action complained of.

(b)(1) Within 90 days after receiving a petition for reconsideration of an
order concluding a hearing under section 204(a) of this title or concluding an
investigation under section 208(b) of this title, the Commission shall issue
an order granting or denying such petition.

(2) Any order issued under paragraph (1) shall be a final order and may be
appealed under section 402(a) of this title.



47 U.S.C. § 536




UNITED STATES CODE ANNOTATED
TITLE 47. TELEGRAPHS, TELEPHONES, AND
RADIOTELEGRAPHS
CHAPTER 5. WIRE OR RADIO COMMUNICATION
SUBCHAPTER V-A. CABLE COMMUNICATIONS
PART II. USE OF CABLE CHANNELS AND CABLE
OWNERSHIP RESTRICTIONS

§ 536. Regulation of carriage agreements

(a) Regulations

Within one year after October 5, 1992, the Commission shall establish
regulations governing program carriage agreements and related practices
between cable operators or other multichannel video programming
distributors and video programming vendors. Such regulations shall--

(1) include provisions designed to prevent a cable operator or other
multichannel video programming distributor from requiring a financial
interest in a program service as a condition for carriage on one or more of
such operator's systems;

(2) include provisions designed to prohibit a cable operator or other
multichannel video programming distributor from coercing a video
programming vendor to provide, and from retaliating against such a vendor
for failing to provide, exclusive rights against other multichannel video
programming distributors as a condition of carriage on a system;

(3) contain provisions designed to prevent a multichannel video
programming distributor from engaging in conduct the effect of which is to
unreasonably restrain the ability of an unaffiliated video programming
vendor to compete fairly by discriminating in video programming
distribution on the basis of affiliation or nonaffiliation of vendors in the
selection, terms, or conditions for carriage of video programming provided
by such vendors;


(4) provide for expedited review of any complaints made by a video
programming vendor pursuant to this section;

(5) provide for appropriate penalties and remedies for violations of this
subsection, including carriage; and

(6) provide penalties to be assessed against any person filing a frivolous
complaint pursuant to this section.

(b) “Video programming vendor” defined

As used in this section, the term “video programming vendor” means a
person engaged in the production, creation, or wholesale distribution of
video programming for sale.



47 U.S.C. § 544




UNITED STATES CODE ANNOTATED
TITLE 47. TELEGRAPHS, TELEPHONES, AND
RADIOTELEGRAPHS
CHAPTER 5. WIRE OR RADIO COMMUNICATION
SUBCHAPTER V-A. CABLE COMMUNICATIONS
PART III. FRANCHISING AND REGULATION


§ 544. Regulation of services, facilities, and equipment

(a) Regulation by franchising authority

Any franchising authority may not regulate the services, facilities, and
equipment provided by a cable operator except to the extent consistent with
this subchapter.

(b) Requests for proposals; establishment and enforcement of requirements

In the case of any franchise granted after the effective date of this
subchapter, the franchising authority, to the extent related to the
establishment or operation of a cable system--

(1) in its request for proposals for a franchise (including requests for
renewal proposals, subject to section 546 of this title), may establish
requirements for facilities and equipment, but may not, except as provided
in subsection (h) of this section, establish requirements for video
programming or other information services; and

(2) subject to section 545 of this title, may enforce any requirements
contained within the franchise--

(A) for facilities and equipment; and

(B) for broad categories of video programming or other services.

(c) Enforcement authority respecting franchises effective under prior law

47 U.S.C. § 544 (cont’d)
Page 2


In the case of any franchise in effect on the effective date of this subchapter,
the franchising authority may, subject to section 545 of this title, enforce
requirements contained within the franchise for the provision of services,
facilities, and equipment, whether or not related to the establishment or
operation of a cable system.

(d) Cable service unprotected by Constitution; blockage of premium channel
upon request

(1) Nothing in this subchapter shall be construed as prohibiting a franchising
authority and a cable operator from specifying, in a franchise or renewal
thereof, that certain cable services shall not be provided or shall be provided
subject to conditions, if such cable services are obscene or are otherwise
unprotected by the Constitution of the United States.

(2) In order to restrict the viewing of programming which is obscene or
indecent, upon the request of a subscriber, a cable operator shall provide (by
sale or lease) a device by which the subscriber can prohibit viewing of a
particular cable service during periods selected by that subscriber.

(3)(A) If a cable operator provides a premium channel without charge to
cable subscribers who do not subscribe to such premium channel, the cable
operator shall, not later than 30 days before such premium channel is
provided without charge--

(i) notify all cable subscribers that the cable operator plans to provide a
premium channel without charge;

(ii) notify all cable subscribers when the cable operator plans to offer a
premium channel without charge;

(iii) notify all cable subscribers that they have a right to request that the
channel carrying the premium channel be blocked; and

(iv) block the channel carrying the premium channel upon the request of a
subscriber.

47 U.S.C. § 544 (cont’d)
Page 3


(B) For the purpose of this section, the term “premium channel” shall mean
any pay service offered on a per channel or per program basis, which offers
movies rated by the Motion Picture Association of America as X, NC-17, or
R.

(e) Technical standards

Within one year after October 5, 1992, the Commission shall prescribe
regulations which establish minimum technical standards relating to cable
systems' technical operation and signal quality. The Commission shall
update such standards periodically to reflect improvements in technology.
No State or franchising authority may prohibit, condition, or restrict a cable
system's use of any type of subscriber equipment or any transmission
technology.

(f) Limitation on regulatory powers of Federal agencies, States, or
franchising authorities; exceptions

(1) Any Federal agency, State, or franchising authority may not impose
requirements regarding the provision or content of cable services, except as
expressly provided in this subchapter.

(2) Paragraph (1) shall not apply to--

(A) any rule, regulation, or order issued under any Federal law, as such
rule, regulation, or order (i) was in effect on September 21, 1983, or (ii)
may be amended after such date if the rule, regulation, or order as amended
is not inconsistent with the express provisions of this subchapter; and

(B) any rule, regulation, or order under Title 17.

(g) Access to emergency information

Notwithstanding any such rule, regulation, or order, each cable operator
shall comply with such standards as the Commission shall prescribe to
ensure that viewers of video programming on cable systems are afforded the

47 U.S.C. § 544 (cont’d)
Page 4


same emergency information as is afforded by the emergency broadcasting
system pursuant to Commission regulations in subpart G of part 73, title 47,
Code of Federal Regulations.

(h) Notice of changes in and comments on services

A franchising authority may require a cable operator to do any one or more
of the following:

(1) Provide 30 days' advance written notice of any change in channel
assignment or in the video programming service provided over any such
channel.

(2) Inform subscribers, via written notice, that comments on programming
and channel position changes are being recorded by a designated office of
the franchising authority.

(i) Disposition of cable upon termination of service

Within 120 days after October 5, 1992, the Commission shall prescribe rules
concerning the disposition, after a subscriber to a cable system terminates
service, of any cable installed by the cable operator within the premises of
such subscriber.



47 C.F.R. § 76.1300




CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS
TITLE 47. TELECOMMUNICATION
CHAPTER I. FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
SUBCHAPTER C. BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES
PART 76. MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION
SERVICE
SUBPART Q. REGULATION OF CARRIAGE AGREEMENTS


§ 76.1300 Definitions.

As used in this subpart:

(a) Affiliated. For purposes of this subpart, entities are affiliated if either
entity has an attributable interest in the other or if a third party has an
attributable interest in both entities.

(b) Attributable interest. The term “attributable interest” shall be defined by
reference to the criteria set forth in Notes 1 through 5 to § 76.501 provided,
however, that:

(1) The limited partner and LLC/LLP/RLLP insulation provisions of
Note 2(f) shall not apply; and

(2) The provisions of Note 2(a) regarding five (5) percent interests shall
include all voting or nonvoting stock or limited partnership equity
interests of five (5) percent or more.

(c) Buying groups. The term “buying group” or “agent,” for purposes of the
definition of a multichannel video programming distributor set forth in
paragraph (e) of this section, means an entity representing the interests of
more than one entity distributing multichannel video programming that:


(1) Agrees to be financially liable for any fees due pursuant to a satellite
cable programming, or satellite broadcast programming, contract which it
signs as a contracting party as a representative of its members or whose
members, as contracting parties, agree to joint and several liability; and

(2) Agrees to uniform billing and standardized contract provisions for
individual members; and

(3) Agrees either collectively or individually on reasonable technical
quality standards for the individual members of the group.

(d) Multichannel video programming distributor. The term “multichannel
video programming distributor” means an entity engaged in the business of
making available for purchase, by subscribers or customers, multiple
channels of video programming. Such entities include, but are not limited to,
a cable operator, a BRS/EBS provider, a direct broadcast satellite service, a
television receive-only satellite program distributor, and a satellite master
antenna television system operator, as well as buying groups or agents of all
such entities.

(e) Video programming vendor. The term “video programming vendor”
means a person engaged in the production, creation, or wholesale
distribution of video programming for sale.



47 C.F.R. § 76.1301




CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS
TITLE 47. TELECOMMUNICATION
CHAPTER I. FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
SUBCHAPTER C. BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES
PART 76. MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION
SERVICE
SUBPART Q. REGULATION OF CARRIAGE AGREEMENTS


§ 76.1301 Prohibited practices.

(a) Financial interest. No cable operator or other multichannel video
programming distributor shall require a financial interest in any program
service as a condition for carriage on one or more of such
operator's/provider's systems.

(b) Exclusive rights. No cable operator or other multichannel video
programming distributor shall coerce any video programming vendor to
provide, or retaliate against such a vendor for failing to provide, exclusive
rights against any other multichannel video programming distributor as a
condition for carriage on a system.

(c) Discrimination. No multichannel video programming distributor shall
engage in conduct the effect of which is to unreasonably restrain the ability
of an unaffiliated video programming vendor to compete fairly by
discriminating in video programming distribution on the basis of affiliation
or non-affiliation of vendors in the selection, terms, or conditions for
carriage of video programming provided by such vendors.



47 C.F.R. § 76.1302




CODE OF FEDERAL REGULATIONS
TITLE 47. TELECOMMUNICATION
CHAPTER I. FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION
SUBCHAPTER C. BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES
PART 76. MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION
SERVICE
SUBPART Q. REGULATION OF CARRIAGE AGREEMENTS


§ 76.1302 Carriage agreement proceedings.

(a) Complaints. Any video programming vendor or multichannel video
programming distributor aggrieved by conduct that it believes constitute a
violation of the regulations set forth in this subpart may commence an
adjudicatory proceeding at the Commission to obtain enforcement of the
rules through the filing of a complaint. The complaint shall be filed and
responded to in accordance with the procedures specified in § 76.7 of this
part with the following additions or changes:

(b) Prefiling notice required. Any aggrieved video programming vendor or
multichannel video programming distributor intending to file a complaint
under this section must first notify the potential defendant multichannel
video programming distributor that it intends to file a complaint with the
Commission based on actions alleged to violate one or more of the
provisions contained in § 76.1301 of this part. The notice must be
sufficiently detailed so that its recipient(s) can determine the specific nature
of the potential complaint. The potential complainant must allow a minimum
of ten (10) days for the potential defendant(s) to respond before filing a
complaint with the Commission.

(c) Contents of complaint. In addition to the requirements of § 76.7, a
carriage agreement complaint shall contain:

(1) Whether the complainant is a multichannel video programming
distributor or video programming vendor, and, in the case of a


47 C.F.R. § 76.1302 (cont’d)
Page 2


multichannel video programming distributor, identify the type of
multichannel video programming distributor, the address and telephone
number of the complainant, what type of multichannel video
programming distributor the defendant is, and the address and telephone
number of each defendant;

(2) Evidence that supports complainant's belief that the defendant, where
necessary, meets the attribution standards for application of the carriage
agreement regulations;

(3) The complaint must be accompanied by appropriate evidence
demonstrating that the required notification pursuant to paragraph (b) of
this section has been made.

(d) Prima facie case. In order to establish a prima facie case of a violation of
§ 76.1301, the complaint must contain evidence of the following:

(1) The complainant is a video programming vendor as defined in section
616(b) of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and §
76.1300(e) or a multichannel video programming distributor as defined in
section 602(13) of the Communications Act of 1934, as amended, and §
76.1300(d);

(2) The defendant is a multichannel video programming distributor as
defined in section 602(13) of the Communications Act of 1934, as
amended, and § 76.1300(d); and

(3)(i) Financial interest. In a complaint alleging a violation of §
76.1301(a), documentary evidence or testimonial evidence (supported by
an affidavit from a representative of the complainant) that supports the
claim that the defendant required a financial interest in any program
service as a condition for carriage on one or more of such defendant's
systems.

(ii) Exclusive rights. In a complaint alleging a violation of § 76.1301(b),
documentary evidence or testimonial evidence (supported by an affidavit

47 C.F.R. § 76.1302 (cont’d)
Page 3


from a representative of the complainant) that supports the claim that the
defendant coerced a video programming vendor to provide, or retaliated
against such a vendor for failing to provide, exclusive rights against any
other multichannel video programming distributor as a condition for
carriage on a system.

(iii) Discrimination. In a complaint alleging a violation of § 76.1301(c):

(A) Evidence that the conduct alleged has the effect of unreasonably
restraining the ability of an unaffiliated video programming vendor to
compete fairly; and

(B)(1) Documentary evidence or testimonial evidence (supported by
an affidavit from a representative of the complainant) that supports the
claim that the defendant discriminated in video programming
distribution on the basis of affiliation or non-affiliation of vendors in
the selection, terms, or conditions for carriage of video programming
provided by such vendors; or

(2)(i) Evidence that the complainant provides video programming
that is similarly situated to video programming provided by a video
programming vendor affiliated (as defined in § 76.1300(a)) with
the defendant multichannel video programming distributor, based
on a combination of factors, such as genre, ratings, license fee,
target audience, target advertisers, target programming, and other
factors; and

(ii) Evidence that the defendant multichannel video programming
distributor has treated the video programming provided by the
complainant differently than the similarly situated, affiliated video
programming described in paragraph (d)(3)(iii)(B)(2)(i) of this
section with respect to the selection, terms, or conditions for
carriage.

(e) Answer.


47 C.F.R. § 76.1302 (cont’d)
Page 4


(1) Any multichannel video programming distributor upon which a
carriage agreement complaint is served under this section shall answer
within sixty (60) days of service of the complaint, unless otherwise
directed by the Commission.

(2) The answer shall address the relief requested in the complaint,
including legal and documentary support, for such response, and may
include an alternative relief proposal without any prejudice to any denials
or defenses raised.

(f) Reply. Within twenty (20) days after service of an answer, unless
otherwise directed by the Commission, the complainant may file and serve a
reply which shall be responsive to matters contained in the answer and shall
not contain new matters.

(g) Prima facie determination.

(1) Within sixty (60) calendar days after the complainant's reply to the
defendant's answer is filed (or the date on which the reply would be due
if none is filed), the Chief, Media Bureau shall release a decision
determining whether the complainant has established a prima facie case
of a violation of § 76.1301.

(2) The Chief, Media Bureau may toll the sixty (60)-calendar-day
deadline under the following circumstances:

(i) If the complainant and defendant jointly request that the Chief, Media
Bureau toll these deadlines in order to pursue settlement discussions or
alternative dispute resolution or for any other reason that the complainant
and defendant mutually agree justifies tolling; or

(ii) If complying with the deadline would violate the due process rights of
a party or would be inconsistent with fundamental fairness.

(3) A finding that the complainant has established a prima facie case of a
violation of § 76.1301 means that the complainant has provided sufficient

47 C.F.R. § 76.1302 (cont’d)
Page 5


evidence in its complaint to allow the case to proceed to a ruling on the
merits.

(4) If the Chief, Media Bureau finds that the complainant has not
established a prima facie case of a violation of § 76.1301, the Chief,
Media Bureau will dismiss the complaint.

(h) Time limit on filing of complaints. Any complaint filed pursuant to this
subsection must be filed within one year of the date on which one of the
following events occurs:

(1) The multichannel video programming distributor enters into a
contract with a video programming distributor that a party alleges to
violate one or more of the rules contained in this section; or

(2) The multichannel video programming distributor offers to carry the
video programming vendor's programming pursuant to terms that a party
alleges to violate one or more of the rules contained in this section, and
such offer to carry programming is unrelated to any existing contract
between the complainant and the multichannel video programming
distributor; or

(3) A party has notified a multichannel video programming distributor
that it intends to file a complaint with the Commission based on
violations of one or more of the rules contained in this section.

(i) Deadline for decision on the merits.

(1)(i) For program carriage complaints that the Chief, Media Bureau
decides on the merits based on the complaint, answer, and reply without
discovery, the Chief, Media Bureau shall release a decision on the merits
within sixty (60) calendar days after the Chief, Media Bureau's prima
facie determination.

(ii) For program carriage complaints that the Chief, Media Bureau
decides on the merits after discovery, the Chief, Media Bureau shall

47 C.F.R. § 76.1302 (cont’d)
Page 6


release a decision on the merits within 150 calendar days after the Chief,
Media Bureau's prima facie determination.

(iii) The Chief, Media Bureau may toll these deadlines under the
following circumstances:

(A) If the complainant and defendant jointly request that the Chief,
Media Bureau toll these deadlines in order to pursue settlement
discussions or alternative dispute resolution or for any other reason
that the complainant and defendant mutually agree justifies tolling; or

(B) If complying with the deadline would violate the due process
rights of a party or would be inconsistent with fundamental fairness.

(2) For program carriage complaints that the Chief, Media Bureau refers
to an administrative law judge for an initial decision, the deadlines set
forth in § 0.341(f) of this chapter apply.

(j) Remedies for violations--

(1) Remedies authorized. Upon completion of such adjudicatory
proceeding, the Commission shall order appropriate remedies, including,
if necessary, mandatory carriage of a video programming vendor's
programming on defendant's video distribution system, or the
establishment of prices, terms, and conditions for the carriage of a video
programming vendor's programming. Such order shall set forth a
timetable for compliance, and shall become effective upon release, unless
any order of mandatory carriage would require the defendant
multichannel video programming distributor to delete existing
programming from its system to accommodate carriage of a video
programming vendor's programming. In such instances, if the defendant
seeks review of the staff, or administrative law judge decision, the order
for carriage of a video programming vendor's programming will not
become effective unless and until the decision of the staff or
administrative law judge is upheld by the Commission. If the
Commission upholds the remedy ordered by the staff or administrative

47 C.F.R. § 76.1302 (cont’d)
Page 7


law judge in its entirety, the defendant will be required to carry the video
programming vendor's programming for an additional period equal to the
time elapsed between the staff or administrative law judge decision and
the Commission's ruling, on the terms and conditions approved by the
Commission.

(2) Additional sanctions. The remedies provided in paragraph (j)(1) of
this section are in addition to and not in lieu of the sanctions available
under title V or any other provision of the Communications Act.

(k) Petitions for temporary standstill.

(1) A program carriage complainant seeking renewal of an existing
programming contract may file a petition along with its complaint
requesting a temporary standstill of the price, terms, and other conditions
of the existing programming contract pending resolution of the
complaint. To allow for sufficient time to consider the petition for
temporary standstill prior to the expiration of the existing programming
contract, the petition for temporary standstill and complaint shall be filed
no later than thirty (30) days prior to the expiration of the existing
programming contract. In addition to the requirements of § 76.7, the
complainant shall have the burden of proof to demonstrate the following
in its petition:

(i) The complainant is likely to prevail on the merits of its complaint;

(ii) The complainant will suffer irreparable harm absent a stay;

(iii) Grant of a stay will not substantially harm other interested parties;
and

(iv) The public interest favors grant of a stay.


47 C.F.R. § 76.1302 (cont’d)
Page 8


(2) The defendant multichannel video programming distributor upon
which a petition for temporary standstill is served shall answer within ten
(10) days of service of the petition, unless otherwise directed by the
Commission.

(3) If the Commission grants the temporary standstill, the adjudicator
deciding the case on the merits (i.e., either the Chief, Media Bureau or an
administrative law judge) will provide for remedies that are applied as of
the expiration date of the previous programming contract.







11-4138 and 11-5152

IN THE UNITED STATES COURT OF APPEALS

FOR THE SECOND CIRCUIT


Time Warner Cable Inc. and National Cable & Telecommunications
Association, Petitioners

v.

Federal Communications Commission and the United States of
America, Respondents.


CERTIFICATE OF SERVICE


I, James M. Carr, hereby certify that on June 26, 2012, I electronically filed
the foregoing Brief for Respondents with the Clerk of the Court for the
United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit by using the CM/ECF
system. Participants in the case who are registered CM/ECF users will be
served by the CM/ECF system.

Floyd Abrams
Matthew A. Brill
Landis C. Best
Amanda E. Potter
Cahill Gordon & Reindell LLP
Matthew Murchison
Eighty Pine Street
Richard P. Bress
New York, NY 10005
Latham & Watkins LLP
Counsel for: Time Warner Cable
555 11th Street, N.W.
Inc.
Suite 1000
Washington, D.C. 20004
Counsel for: Time Warner Cable
Inc.



Miguel A. Estrada
Nancy C. Garrison
Gibson, Dunn & Crutcher LLP
Catherine G. O’Sullivan
1050 Connecticut Avenue, N.W.
US Department of Justice
Washington, D.C. 20036
Antitrust Division, Appellate Section
Counsel for: National Cable &
950 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W.
Telecommunications Association
Room 3224
Washington, D.C. 20530
Counsel for: USA


/s/ James M. Carr

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